HOW-TOs

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Cleaning Your Inbox with Mutt

Teach Mutt yet another trick: how to filter messages in your Inbox with a simple macro. I'm a longtime Mutt user and have written about it a number of times in Linux Journal. Although many people may think it's strange to be using a command-line-based email client in 2018, I find a keyboard-driven email client so much more efficient than clicking around in a web browser. Mutt is extremely customizable, which presents a steep learning curve at first, but now that I'm a few decades in, my Mutt configuration is pretty ideal and fits me like a tailored suit.
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Shuffling Letters and Words

You can shuffle your feet and you can shuffle cards, but can you shuffle characters? Dave's latest column explores the possibilities. My last few articles have described building a pretty sophisticated password generator, except for one thing: I never quite got to the point of scrambling the end result to add a second level of randomness. I sidestepped the issue by saying it was an exercise for the reader, but in fact, it's a pretty interesting problem, so let's look at it here. You can reverse a word with the handy Linux command rev, like so:
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Encrypting NFSv4 with Stunnel TLS

NFS clients and servers push file traffic over clear-text connections in the default configuration, which is incompatible with sensitive data. TLS can wrap this traffic, finally bringing protocol security. Before you use your cloud provider's NFS tools, review all of your NFS usage and secure it where necessary.
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Building a Bare-Bones Git Environment

How to migrate repositories from GitHub, configure the software and get started with hosting Git repositories on your own Linux server. With the recent news of Microsoft's acquisition of GitHub, many people have chosen to research other code-hosting options. Self-hosted solutions like GitLabs offer a polished UI, similar in functionality to GitHub but one that requires reasonably well-powered hardware and provides many features that casual Git users won't necessarily find useful.
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DIY: Build a Custom Minimal Linux Distribution from Source

Follow along with this step-by-step guide to build your own distribution from source and learn how it installs, loads and runs. When working with Linux, you easily can download any of the most common distributions to install and configure—be it Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, OpenSUSE or something entirely different. And although you should give several distributions a spin, building your own custom, minimal Linux distribution is also a beneficial and wonderful learning exercise.
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Building a Voice-Controlled Front End to IoT Devices

Apple, Google and Amazon are taking voice control to the next level. But can voice control be a DIY project? Turns out, it can. And, it isn't as hard as you might think. Siri, Alexa and Google Home can all translate voice commands into basic activities, especially if those activities involve nothing more than sharing digital files like music and movies. Integration with home automation is also possible, though perhaps not as simply as users might desire—at least, not yet.
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The LJ Password Generator Tool

Mnemonic passwords generally stink. A random sequence of letters, digits and punctuation is more secure—just don't write down your passwords, like the knucklehead antagonist does in Ready Player One!
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Introducing PyInstaller

Want to distribute Python programs to your Python-less clients? PyInstaller is the answer. If you're used to working with a compiled language, the notion that you would need to have a programming language around, not just for development but also for running an application, seems a bit weird. Just because a program was written in C doesn't mean you need a C compiler in order to run it, right?
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Data Privacy: Why It Matters and How to Protect Yourself

When it comes to privacy on the internet, the safest approach is to cut your Ethernet cable or power down your device. But, because you can't really do that and remain somewhat productive, you need other options. This article provides a general overview of the situation, steps you can take to mitigate risks and finishes with a tutorial on setting up a virtual private network.
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Back Up GitHub and GitLab Repositories Using Golang

Want to learn Golang and build something useful? Learn how to write a tool to back up your GitHub and GitLab repositories. GitHub and GitLab are two popular Git repository hosting services that are used to host and manage open-source projects. They also have become an easy way for content creators to be able to invite others to share and collaborate without needing to have their own infrastructure setup.
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Generating Good Passwords, Part II

Passwords. They're the bane of computer users and a necessary evil, but they have risks and challenges associated with them. None of the choices are great. If it's up to your memory, you'll end up using the same password again and again. Use a password manager like 1Password, and you're reliant on its database security and portability. Two-factor? Um, can I borrow your phone for a minute?
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Examining Data Using Pandas

You don't need to be a data scientist to use Pandas for some basic analysis. Traditionally, people who program in Python use the data types that come with the language, such as integers, strings, lists, tuples and dictionaries. Sure, you can create objects in Python, but those objects typically are built out of those fundamental data structures.
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Nextcloud 13: How to Get Started and Why You Should

Nextcloud could be the first step toward replacing proprietary services like Dropbox and Skype. In its simplest form, the Nextcloud server is "just" a personal, free software alternative to services like Dropbox or iCloud. You can set it up so your files are always accessible via the internet, from wherever you are, and share them with your friends. However, Nextcloud can do so much more.
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Generating Good Passwords, Part I

Dave starts a new method for generating secure passwords with the help of 1Password. A while back I shared a script concept that would let you enter a proposed password for an account and evaluate whether it was very good (well, maybe "secure" would be a better word to describe the set of tests to ensure that the proposed password included uppercase, lowercase, a digit and a punctuation symbol to make it more unguessable).
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Everything You Need to Know about the Cloud and Cloud Computing, Part II: Using the Cloud

How to get started with AWS, install Apache, create an EFS volume and much more. The cloud is here to stay, regardless of how you access data day to day. Whether you are uploading and sharing new photos with friends in your social-media account or updating documents and spreadsheets alongside your peers in your office or school, chances are you're connecting to the cloud in some form or another.
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Developing Console Applications with Bash

As a novice software developer, the one thing I look for when choosing a programming language is this: is there a library that allows me to interface with the system to accomplish a task? If Python didn't have Flask, I might choose a different language to write a web application. For this same reason, I've begun to develop many, admittedly small, applications with Bash. Although Python, for example, has many modules to import and extend functionality, Bash has thousands of commands that perform a variety of features, including string manipulation, mathematic computation, encryption and database operations. In this article, I take a look at these features and how to use them easily within a Bash application.
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Randomly Switching Upper and Lowercase in a Shell Script

Dave wraps up the shell-script L33t generator Last time, I talked about what's known informally as l33t-speak, a series of letter and letter-pair substitutions that marks the jargon of the hacker elite (or some subset of hacker elite, because I'm pretty sure that real computer security experts don't need to substitute vowels with digits to sound cool and hip).