# Exploring RSA Encryption in OpenSSL

When sending your credit card number through a public medium, such as the Internet, your financial credibility may be compromised if the number is not first encrypted. It is impossible to tell who may be listening in on your connection as you shop for new CDs or books. The RSA encryption method often is used to hide your credit card number from would-be thiefs on the Internet, because it uses a public key to hide your information and a private key to reveal it. This article banishes the mystery surrounding RSA encryption and explains how a realistic implementation of RSA works in the OpenSSL library. The only files you need to concern yourself with appear in the openssl/crypto/bn and openssl/crypto/rsa subdirectories. Feel free to download and take a look at the code to get a feel for it before continuing.

The best way to understand asymmetric encryption is to think of a box that has two kinds of keys: one key locks it and the other unlocks it. Anybody who has a copy of the locking key (aka public key) can put a secret in the box. Because only you have the unlocking key (aka private key), nobody else can reveal a secret that someone else locked in the box. This is different from symmetric key encryption, in which the same key is used for locking and unlocking.

Here is an example of encryption using the same key. First, we choose a number and call it the key. We want to encrypt a credit card number, so we subtract each number of the credit card from the key. For instance, take the number 1424 3135 2435 1556 and choose the number 12. We could encrypt it like so:

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 -1 -4 -2 -4 -3 -1 -3 -5 -2 -4 -3 -5 -1 -5 -5 -6 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 11 8 10 8 9 11 9 7 10 8 9 7 11 7 7 6

The bottom list of numbers then would be the encrypted credit card number. To decrypt the credit card number, we need only to subtract each number from the key once again:

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 8 10 8 9 11 9 7 10 8 9 7 11 7 7 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 4 2 4 3 1 3 5 2 4 3 5 1 5 5 6

Modern encryption algorithms such as AES and Triple DES are much more complicated--not to mention more secure--than this technique, but the example shows how the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. Before two parties can use this system, they both need to know the key 12. The algebra equations that symbolize this algorithm are:

C = K - M M = K - C

where M is the number to encrypt, K is the key (12 in the above example) and C is the encrypted cipher-text number. If two parties can agree on a key before beginning communications, then symmetric encryption is enough. This prearrangement, however, is not always feasible.

Say you log on to a bookstore for the first time and decide to buy something with a credit card. How do you know which key to use? Either you or the on-line bookstore has to choose the key (K), but it cannot be sent over the Internet because snoopers may see it. This is where RSA comes in handy. The equations for encrypting and decrypting are only a little more complicated than they are for the subtraction technique:

C = ME mod N M = CD mod N

If you are not used to seeing mod, it means to take the remainder if the number is divided by N. In the first equation, we raise M to the power E and divide the result by N, then store the remainder in C.

Again, M is the number to encrypt and C is the cipher- text number. There are two keys: E is for encryption, while D is for decryption. The best way to think of N is its the box in which the secret is hidden. As an example, say we wish to encrypt the number 6. We choose an encryption key of E=3, a decryption key of D=17 and a box of N=25. You want to send the message M=6 to the bookstore, so the encryption happens like this:

C = 63 mod 25 = 16

When you log in to the on-line bookstore, the seller sends you key E=3 and box N=25 so you can encrypt your credit card number. However, decryption is impossible without knowing that D=17:

M = 1617 mod 25 = 6

Because nobody else knows that D=17, it is impossible for anybody except the bookstore to decrypt messages. Hence, you can contact anybody on the Internet and feel safe that your sensitive info is secure from theft.

This technique is so simple that encoding and decoding for 32-bit numbers can be implemented in a single line of C code. The real complications arise when you ask such questions as "How do I generate an RSA key pair?" or "How large do the numbers need to be for security?". The answers to these questions complicate RSA implementations a hundred times over. The rest of this article illustrates how these obstacles are tackled in the OpenSSL library. You can download the latest version from www.openssl.org. Click on the tab labeled Source to download the latest version (0.9.7b at the time of this writing).

Generating the numbers N, E and D requires the generation of primes and relative primes. To generate N, you need to find two large primes and multiply them together. We can define N as a math equation:

N = P * Q

where P and Q are both random, prime numbers. The encryption key E and decryption key D both must be relative prime to (P-1)*(Q-1). This means they must satisfy the equation:

(E * D) mod (P-1)*(Q-1) = 1

If two numbers are relative primes, it means their prime factorizations share nothing in common. For instance, 9 and 40 are relative primes to each other because they have no common factors:

9 = 3 * 3 40 = 2 * 2 * 2 * 5

Generating a random prime number for an RSA key is nothing more than a guess-and-check process. The files openssl/bn/bn_prime.* implement a quick sieve testing approach to choosing primes. The quick sieve approach asks the question "Is this number prime?" but only receives the answers:

No

Maybe

OpenSSL generates random numbers and then runs a test-prime function multiple times to weed out any false positives. If the test fails, the random number is discarded and the process begins anew. There are no guarantees that the generated number really is prime, but math gurus have shown that a number can be shown prime with 99.9% probability by using this test.

The encryption key E usually is chosen to be a constant, prime number for a protocol (such as SSL). Therefore, only the number N needs to be sent across the Internet. Common choices are the numbers 3 or 65537. Finding the decryption key D is a little more difficult because you need to find the modulo inverse. This involves calculating the greatest common divisor by using Euclid's algorithm as detailed in Knuth's book (see Resources). If you look in the file openssl/crypto/rsa/rsa_gen.c, you can get an idea of how it works in OpenSSL.

A secure RSA implementation requires rather large numbers. Most secure protocol standards recommend key sizes of 1,024-bit numbers, which 32-bit processors, such as the Pentium III or PowerPC, cannot handle natively. To get around this barrier, OpenSSL implements a new data type called a BIGNUM. The BIGNUM data struct is implemented in file openssl/crypto/bn/bn.h and is defined in Listing 1.

The generic computer can handle 1,024-bit numbers only if they are stored as arrays of smaller 32-bit numbers. The variable d in the BIGNUM structure stores a pointer to a dynamically allocated array. The length of the array is stored in dmax so that routines for handling BIGNUM variables can avoid buffer overrun errors.

Basic arithmetic on BIGNUMs is as simple as elementary math class, but with an added twist. Let us look at simple addition of two numbers:

1 1 <== carry 1 4 7 + 2 6 3 ------- 4 1 0

Humans break addition of multidigit numbers into smaller pieces by adding together single digits at a time, from right to left. Computers can add large numbers in the same manner. If we separate each digit into a separate array element, we can implement elementary addition like this:

#define BASE 10 void add(int *a, int *b, int *c, int top) { int i, carry; for (i=carry=0; i < top; i++) { c[i] = a[i] + b[i] + carry; if (c[i] >= BASE) { carry = 1; c[i] -= BASE; } else { carry = 0; } } }

The variable **top** represents the number of
digits to add. By using this technique to break up numbers, we can
define a number that is thousands of digits in size if we so
desired. It is not memory efficient to define BASE as ten, so why
not use base sixteen or even base four billion? The answer is we
can use any base that we like up to the maximum value of a 32-bit
integer:

void add(unsigned int *a, unsigned int *b, unsigned int *c, int top) { int i, carry; for (i=carry=0; i < top; i++) { c[i] = a[i] + b[i] + carry; /* is there an overflow? */ if ((c[i] < a[i]) || (c[i] < b[i])) { carry = 1; /* yes overflow, so carry */ } else { carry = 0; /* no overflow, no carry */ } } }

Because the largest number that a 32-bit integer can store is 232-1, anything larger wraps around with an overflow error. We can use this "error" to our advantage, because it has the same effect as subtracting the base. This is the principle that OpenSSL uses to implement arithmetic on the BIGNUM structure.

If you look in openssl/crypto/bn/bn_add.c and in openssl/crypto/bn/bn_asm.c, you can find hyper-optimized addition and subtraction functions. These functions use fancy pointer techniques to reference array elements in the BIGNUM variables, but the principles are the same. Some other details they keep track of include:

negative numbers, necessary with subtraction

different values for the top variable

buffer overrun errors

microprocessor independence

All the error checks and minor optimizations that address these issues may make BN_add() and BN_sub() daunting at first, but they simply are fancy C code wrappers for the old tried and true method.

Multiplication also generalizes quite well with the BIGNUM data structure. When a 32-bit unsigned integer is used to represent a single digit, we can use the classic elementary school algorithm. For example:

2 4 3 * 4 1 5 ------- 1 2 1 5 <== 243 * 5 2 4 3 <== 243 * 1 9 7 2 <== 243 * 4 ----------- 1 0 0 8 4 5

If we allow for 232 total digits instead of the usual ten, we can implement multiplication in terms of the addition function discussed previously.

void mul(unsigned int *a, unsigned int *b, unsigned int *c, int top) { unsigned long long prod; /* 64-bit num in GNU C */ unsigned int i,j, hi32, lo32, carry; unsigned int acc[top]; /* array of size top */ /* initialize c[] to all zeros */ for (j=0; j < top; j++) { /* initialize acc[] to all zeros */ for (i=carry=0; i < top; i++) { prod = a[i] * b[j]; lo32 = prod & 0x00000000FFFFFFFFULL; hi32 = prod & 0xFFFFFFFFr0000000ULL; acc[i] = lo32+carry; carry = hi32; } add(acc,c+i,c+i,top); } }

Notice that we need 64 bits when multiplying two 32-bit numbers. To handle a 64-bit quantity properly, we need to split it into two 32-bit quantities. The number a is multiplied by a digit in b, and the result is added to the total. To optimize multiplication, OpenSSL uses a trick called Karatsuba's recursive algorithm. It reduces the time complexity from O(n2) to O(n1.5) by using a divide-and-conquer approach.

Division is a beast similar to multiplication, but one that requires a little extra thought. Whereas converting addition to subtraction simply requires a sign change, division has to account for the remainder, or modulo. Although OpenSSL implements division in openssl/crypto/bn/bn_div.c, it is not needed directly in RSA because RSA uses Montgomery multiplication instead (more to come).

OpenSSL implements exponentiation based on a multiplication-modulo algorithm. Directly raising a 1,024-bit number to a 1,024-bit number power requires about 10300 Gigabytes of memory. So, how does the computer compute the RSA operation ME mod N? The trick lies in distributing the mod operation within the multiplications. For example:

436 mod 13 = (432 mod 13) * (44 mod 13)

By distributing the mod operation, it is unnecessary to ever store more than 1,024 extra bits on an intermediate operation.

Another subtlety to exponentiation makes it possible to compute the operation in a short amount of time. Let us take a look at openssl/crypto/bn/bn_exp.c:

for (i=1; i<bits; i++) { if (!BN_sqr(v,v,ctx)) goto err; if (BN_is_bit_set(p,i)) { if (!BN_mul(rr,rr,v,ctx)) goto err; } }

This function computes vp and then stores the result in rr. Because a number is represented in binary, it is possible to represent an exponentiation as a product of powers of two. Take a look at this breakdown:

432 = 416 * 416 <== 416 = 48 * 48 48 = 44 * 44 44 = 42 * 42 <== 436 = 432 * 44

If we examine the excerpt from BN_exp() above, we see that v is squared at every step. Then, if a bit is set in p, it is multiplied into the total. The number 36 is 00100010 in binary, so exponentiation is nothing more than a shift-test- multiply operation.

To exponentiate BIGNUM variables, each step requires a multiplication operation and a modulo operation. Rather than go through the basic algorithms, it is possible to combine the multiplication and modulo into a single step called modular multiplication (aka Montgomery multiplication). OpenSSL uses this method to accelerate the modular exponentiation of a BIGNUM variable. The file openssl/crypto/bn/bn_mont.c has an implementation that requires some time to comprehend fully. If you have further interest, reviews this paper.

Converting a text string to a BIGNUM variable and back is the last piece necessary to implement the RSA_public_encrypt() and RSA_private_decrypt() functions. Both are defined in openssl/crypto/rsa/rsa_lib.c. If you are interested to see how to include RSA in your own programs, take a look at openssl/crypto/rsa/rsa_test.c. This example illustrates how to do everything with the OpenSSL RSA package you may ever need.

This is by no means a comprehensive explanation of how RSA works, nor is it meant to be. Hopefully, it explained some of the more obscure details. The security of RSA is based on the difficulty of factoring large numbers, which is next to impossible for 1,024-bit numbers today. This could change tomorrow, however, as technology develops. The RSA factoring challenge from RSA Labs has the latest public information on factoring (see Resources).

The OpenSSL library is used in several open-source packages. Some prominent ones you might be familiar with include Samba, Apache-SSL and OpenSSH. If you are interested in learning more about how to implement encryption algorithms or their security, some Resources are listed below.

Kernighan & Ritchie, *The C Programming
Language*

Knuth, *The Art of Computer Programming, Vol.
2*

Schneier, *Applied Cryptography*

Menezes, Alfred J., Van Oorschot, Paul C. and Vanstone, Scott
A., *Handbook of Applied Cryptography*

**James Tandon** currently
consults for Computer Motion and likes dogs better than cats. His
home page is
www.antinomian.net.