by Various
LJ Index—October 2002
  1. Millions of pounds of space junk orbiting Earth: 4

  2. Total man-made objects larger than 1cm in diameter, currently orbiting Earth: 110,000

  3. Number of man-made objects currently being officially tracked: 8,927

  4. Age in years of the oldest US-launched satellite, Vanguard I: 44

  5. Age at which Vanguard I became space junk: 6

  6. Thousands of orbiting fragments produced by a Pegasus rocket explosion in 1996: 300

  7. Millions of adults who use the Net at home or work: 156

  8. Percentage of the above who listen to internet radio: 16

  9. Millions of dollars spent by IBM on a Linux-specific testing lab in New York: 1

  10. Worldwide number of Linux users, in millions: 18

  11. Percentage of Linux systems used as workstations: 61.42

  12. Percentage of Linux systems used for programming: 43.65

  13. Percentage of Linux systems used as mail servers: 23.37

  14. Percentage of Linux systems used as web servers: 33.38

  15. Percentage of Linux systems used as file servers: 24.64

  16. Percentage of Linux systems used as firewalls: 23.51

  17. Percentage of Linux systems used as DNS services: 17.6

  18. Rank of Faroe Islands in number of Linux users as a percentage of whole population: 1

  19. Rank of Finland in number of Linux users as a percentage of the entire population: 4

  1. 1-6: Space.com

  2. 7-8: Wharton School of Economics, citing USA Today and Gartner3

  3. 9: International Business Machines Corp.

  4. 10-19: Linux Counter (counter.li.org)

Lindows and Mandrake at Wal-Mart.com

Here's an interesting trend. A few months ago, Wal-Mart.com started selling cheap PCs equipped with no OS at all. Then they started selling the same boxes equipped with the new Lindows OS (which runs Linux and Windows apps). Now they've added a series of slightly more upscale models that run Mandrake Linux.

The Lindows models run $299-$599 (US). The bottom model has an AMD Duron 850MHz processor, 128MB memory and a 10GB hard drive. The top model has a 1.8GHz Pentium 4, 256MB DDR memory and a 40GB hard drive.

The Mandrake models run $391-$648 (US). The bottom model has an AMD Duron 900MHz processor, 128MB memory and a 40GB hard drive. The top model has an Intel 2.0GHz Pentium 4 processor, 256MB DDR memory and a 40GB hard drive.

None come with monitors. Those begin at $128.42 (US) for a 17" model with up to 1280 × 1024 resolution. Color printers start at $49.63 (US) for a Lexmark Z23.

Prices and models are from mid-July 2002.

—Doc Searls

The Subject of This Month's Quiz Is “Mail”


Q1 Eric Allman wrote the original Sendmail program to allow users to exchange mail among what three networks at the University of California, Berkeley?

Q2 ^TO_ in a procmail recipe is short for what?

Q3 How do you expunge deleted messages in Mutt?

Q4 What was the first Mail Transport Agent (MTA) ported to Linux, and when did it occur?

Q5 D. J. Bernstein's Maildir structure for storing mail in directories uses what three subdirectories per mailbox?

Q6 The --send-keys option of Gnu Privacy Guard sends keys where?

Q7 Who has the world's longest .signature file?


A1 ARPANet, UUCP and the University's own BerkNet.

A2 Any header that specifies a recipient of the mail: To, Cc and Bcc, along with less common ones such as Apparently-To and Envelope-To.

A3 Use the sync-mailbox function, which is bound to the $ key by default.

A4 smail, which Ian Kluft ported in 1992.

A5 The three subdirectories are: new, for newly delivered mail not yet seen by the user's mailer; cur, for mail that the mailer has seen (but that still may be unread by the user); and tmp, for temporary files.

A6 To a keyserver, so that other PGP and GPG users can easily look up your key.

A7 James “Kibo” Parry. It contains two ASCII art representations of the Starship Enterprise, one ASCII art sword, a recommended reading list and much other fascinating material. At 993 lines, it exceeds the recommended four lines by a bandwidth-sucking 24,725%.

—Don Marti

Stop the Presses: Real's Half Step Forward

Founded by Rob Glaser, a former high-level Microsoft executive, RealNetworks has been a highly proprietary streaming media business that seemed to fit the Microsoft mold. Yet RealNetworks' biggest competitor also happened to be Microsoft, which lately had become more and more aggressive in the streaming media business.

In July, RealNetworks embarked on an extreme strategy: they took part of their software open source. Specifically, they announced Helix, a set of tools for streaming and caching “all major media types”, including RealAudio/RealVideo, QuickTime, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, Windows Media and Ogg Vorbis. At the time of the announcement, the server was slated to run on 11 different operating systems, including Linux. RealNetworks claimed that the server, running on Linux, delivered four times the performance of Windows Media Server 8 while delivering Windows Media and Real files simultaneously.

The Real codecs are still available only through a strictly proprietary license. When I interviewed Rob Glaser at the O'Reilly Open Source Convention—on the day RealNetworks announced Ogg Vorbis support—he compared the role of codecs to that of packaging in a shipping system. RealNetworks' business is shipping bits, not packaging them, he explained. Customers can use Real's own packaging, or whatever else they like, such as Ogg Vorbis, QuickTime, Windows Media Player, etc.

At the time of this writing there are two licenses: a proprietary “RealNetworks Community Source License (RCSL)”, which is “structured to ensure that all products built under the RCSL remain compatible with the Helix interfaces”, and a RealNetworks Public Source License (RPSL), which “is structured to provide developers greater flexibility in their use of the source code”. This one is described as “similar” to the GPL in respect to certain copyleft provisions, but different in respect to “patent issues”. The company also will license several patents and pending patent applications to the Helix community.

After the announcement, Bruce Perens published a detailed analysis of RealNetwork's plans at that point. He wrote:

  • “The RealNetworks server and 'encoder engine', without the actual codecs, will be under a 'community source' license. This means that source code will be disclosed to people who sign an agreement, and those people will get a lot less than the full set of rights that come with open-source licensing. Since other streaming servers and encoders are already fully open source, we can't expect the Open Source community to have much to do with this part of RealNetworks' code.”

  • “The RealAudio and RealVideo codecs will be available in compiled form, as proprietary software that can be linked into a larger product. Again, no joy in the Free Software camp. However, these codecs will be available for use along with various open-source pieces that Real is releasing, and thus it will be easier to for third parties to produce a half-proprietary Real-format player under Linux and on other operating systems where one is not supported today.”

The announcement drew inevitable comparisons to Netscape's announcement of Mozilla in 1998—after which the project took more than four years to deliver a 1.0 product. “Unlike the Mozilla Project, we do not plan on rewriting everything from scratch”, one Real employee wrote to me.

—Doc Searls

They Said It

What you need is a nerdy guy who'd do anything for you. Who would leave presents at your door and make web sites in your image: beautiful and grand, lyrical and edgy. You need a geek who would wait years for you, secretly, despite his own welfare. You need someone who won't make fun of the bad music kids these days love.

Instead of trolling the skate parks and beaches, you should sit outside a cyber café or an engineering department, browse through the aisles of Fry's Electronics, become a member of the Battery Club at Radio Shack.

—Tony Pierce

Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake.

—Napoléon Bonaparte

Advertising is not a means of supporting media. Media is an excuse for presenting advertising.

—Rusty Foster

Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep.

—Scott Adams

Proprietary data is the root of tyranny.

—Britt Blaser

The user group communities in the Bay Area have dwindled away, largely because installing and using GNU/Linux isn't as exciting or new or challenging anymore. Installfests made sense in the Slackware era, but now any newbie can point-and-click through a Mandrake install. I can now safely write about the user groups in the past tense.

—Nick Moffitt

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