Introducing one of the larger scientific lab packages for Linux.
Scilab is meant to be an overall package for numerical science, along the lines of Maple, Matlab or Mathematica. Although a lot of built-in functionality exists for all sorts of scientific computations, Scilab also includes its own programming language, which allows you to use that functionality to its utmost. If you prefer, you instead can use this language to extend Scilab's functionality into completely new areas of research. Some of the functionality includes 2D and 3D visualization and optimization tools, as well as statistical functions. Also included in Scilab is Xcos, an editor for designing dynamical systems models.