Tech Tip: Using Ghostscript to Convert and Combine Files
Ghostscript gives you the power to combine files, convert files, and much more, all from the command line.
It is easy to combine several input files into one combined PDF using Ghostscript:
gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=combined.pdf \ first.pdf \ second.pdf \ third.pdf [...]
Your input files don't even need to be PDF files. You can also use PostScript or EPS files, or any mixture of the three:
gs -sDEVICE=pdfwrite \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=combined.pdf \ first.pdf \ second.ps \ third.eps [...]
The combined.pdf file will contain the input files in the order given on the commandline. If you don't want the combined file to be PDF, but PostScript instead, you may want to use this:
gs -sDEVICE=pswrite \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=combined.ps \ first.pdf \ second.ps \ third.eps [...]
Should you for whatever reason want PostScript level 1 output, add a language level parameter:
gs -sDEVICE=pswrite \ -dLanguageLevel=1 \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=combined.ps \ first.pdf \ second.ps \ third.eps [...]
The default PostScript language output level is 2. Using "1.5" is also supported, which is language level 1 with color extensions.
You can convert color input files into black/white or non-color/gray PostScript like this:
gs -sDEVICE=psgray \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=combined.ps \ first.pdf \ second.ps \ third.eps [...] gs -sDEVICE=psmono \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=combined.ps \ first.pdf \ second.ps \ third.eps [...]
Should you for some reason need a series of single-page EPS files made up of pages from various input files, try this:
gs -sDEVICE=epswrite \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=p%08d.eps \ 5page-first.pdf \ 7page-second.ps \ 1page-third.eps [...]
The resulting files will be nicely named as p00000001.eps .... p00000013.eps ...
But be aware, converting PDFs back to PostScript (or EPS), like the last 6 commands did, may loose some or much of the original quality. For example, PostScript can't handle transparencies directly (it fakes them by converting them into bitmap patterns), and converting such a PostScript file back to PDF will not restore the original transparency feature. Also, some other aspects of the graphic quality from the input PDFs may be deteriorated.
So in general, it's better to stay with PDFs and avoid roundtrip conversions to PostScript and back to PDF...
Should you need TIFFs or JPEGs from all pages of your input files, try this:
gs -sDEVICE=tiffg4 \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -sOutputFile=p%08d.tif \ -r600x600 \ 5page-first.pdf \ 7page-second.ps \ 1page-third.eps [...] gs -sDEVICE=jpeg \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -r600x600 \ -sOutputFile=p%08d.jpg \ 5page-first.pdf \ 7page-second.ps \ 1page-third.eps [...]
Graphic gurus, check this out. To create color separations (CMYK), use:
gs -sDEVICE=tiffsep \ -dNOPAUSE -dBATCH -dSAFER \ -r600x600 \ -sOutputFile=p%08d.tif \ 5page-first.pdf \ 7page-second.ps \ 1page-third.eps [...]
We included an extra parameter in the last few examples to make the output resolution 600dpi, because we don't like the default 72dpi when it comes to pure full page image files. Now, you may be surprised: for each single page of the input files you automatically get 5 different files:
p000000XX.tif p000000XX.Cyan.tif p000000XX.Magenta.tif p000000XX.Yellow.tif p000000XX.Black.tif
The *.tif file will be the biggest, since it contains a single 32 bit composite CMYK file (tiff32nc format). The four *.Colorname.tif files are not really colored (as one might think from their names), but in reality they are tiffgray files meant for creating offset printing plates for the respective separation in 4-color CMYK printing. If Ghostscript autodetected so called "spot colors" in the input files, these will get their own separation files, with a naming convention of *.s1.tif, *.s2.tif,... etc. (up to 64 different process and spot colors are supported).
- The Tiny Internet Project, Part I
- Machine Learning with Python
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- SUSECON 2016: Where Technology Reigns Supreme
- Free Today: September Issue of Linux Journal (Retail value: $5.99)
- Bitcoin on Amazon! Sort of...
- Securing the Programmer
- Android Browser Security--What You Haven't Been Told
- Epiq Solutions' Sidekiq M.2
Pick up any e-commerce web or mobile app today, and you’ll be holding a mashup of interconnected applications and services from a variety of different providers. For instance, when you connect to Amazon’s e-commerce app, cookies, tags and pixels that are monitored by solutions like Exact Target, BazaarVoice, Bing, Shopzilla, Liveramp and Google Tag Manager track every action you take. You’re presented with special offers and coupons based on your viewing and buying patterns. If you find something you want for your birthday, a third party manages your wish list, which you can share through multiple social- media outlets or email to a friend. When you select something to buy, you find yourself presented with similar items as kind suggestions. And when you finally check out, you’re offered the ability to pay with promo codes, gifts cards, PayPal or a variety of credit cards.Get the Guide