Security Hardening with Ansible
Ansible is an open-source automation tool developed and released by Michael DeHaan and others in 2012. DeHaan calls it a "general-purpose automation pipeline" (see Resources for a link to the article "Ansible's Architecture: Beyond Configuration Management"). Not only can it be used for automated configuration management, but it also excels at orchestration, provisioning of systems, zero-time rolling updates and application deployment. Ansible can be used to keep all your systems configured exactly the way you want them, and if you have many identical systems, Ansible will ensure they stay identical. For Linux system administrators, Ansible is an indispensable tool in implementing and maintaining a strong security posture.
Ansible can be used to deploy and configure multiple Linux servers (Red Hat, Debian, CentOS, OS X, any of the BSDs and others) using secure shell (SSH) instead of the more common client-server methodologies used by other configuration management packages, such as Puppet and Chef (Chef does have a solo version that does not require a server, per se). Utilizing SSH is a more secure method because the traffic is encrypted. The secure shell transport layer protocol is used for communications between the Ansible server and the target hosts. Authentication is accomplished using Kerberos, public-key authentication or passwords.
When I began working in system administration some years ago, a senior colleague gave me a simple formula for success. He said, "Just remember, automate, automate, automate." If this is true, and I believe it is, then Ansible can be a crucial tool in making any administrator's career successful. If you do not have a few really good automation tools, every task must be accomplished manually. That wastes a lot of time, and time is precious. Ansible makes it possible to manage many servers almost effortlessly.
Ansible uses a very simple method called playbooks to orchestrate configurations. A playbook is a set of instructions written in YAML that tells the Ansible server what "plays" to carry out on the target hosts. YAML is a very simple, human-readable markup language that gives the user fine granularity when setting up configuration schemes. It is installed, along with Ansible, as a dependency. Ansible uses YAML because it is much easier to write than common data formats, like JSON and XML. The learning curve for YAML is very low, hence proficiency can be gained very quickly. For example, the simple playbook shown in Figure 1 keeps the Apache RPM on targeted Web servers up to date and current.
Figure 1. Example Playbook That Will Upgrade Apache to the Latest Version
From the Ansible management server, you can create a cron job to push the playbook to the target hosts on a regular basis, thus ensuring you always will have the latest-and-greatest version of the Apache Web server.
Using YAML, you can instruct Ansible to target a specific group of servers, the remote user you want to run as, tasks to assign and many other details. You can name each task, which makes for easier reading of the playbook. You can set variables, and use loops and conditional statements. If you have updated a configuration file that requires restarting a service, Ansible uses tasks called handlers to notify the system that a service restart is necessary. Handlers also can be used for other things, but this is the most common.
Mark Dotson has been a system administrator for 15 years. He has worked in storage and high-performance computing. He is currently employed by Lockheed-Martin Corporation.
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- January 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: Security