Hack and / - Password Cracking with GPUs, Part III: Tune Your Attack

You've built the hardware, installed the software and cracked some passwords. Now find out how to fine-tune your attacks.

In the first two parts of this series, I explained what hardware to get and then described how to use the hashcat software suite to perform dictionary and brute-force attacks. If you have been following along, by this point, you should have had plenty of time to build your own password-cracking hardware and experiment with oclhashcat. As I mentioned in my last column, password cracking is a pretty dense subject. In this article, I finish the series by describing how to tune and refine your attacks further so they can be more effective.

Use More GPU Cycles

The first area where you can fine-tune your attacks is to put more or less load on your GPU. The -n option, when passed to oclhashcat, changes how much of your GPU will be used for an attack. The documentation says that this value is set to 80 by default; however, on my computer, it seemed like the default was set closer to 40. When I first ran a brute-force attack, the output told me I was using around 70–80% of my GPU. Once I added -n 80 to my oclhashcat command, I noticed I was using between 96–98% of my GPU and had added an extra 40,000 comparisons per second:

/path/to/mp32.bin -1 ?d?l?u ?1?1?1?1?1?1 | \
/path/to/oclHashcat-plus32.bin -m 400 -n 80 \
-o recovered_hashes phpass-hashes

Experiment with passing different values to -n, and see whether your comparisons per second and the percentage of GPU used increases. Be careful though; the higher the number, the more power your GPU is going to use (and if it's not well-cooled, the hotter it will run). Also, if you plan to use the system for other things while you crack passwords, you may notice a greater impact on graphics performance.

Although it may seem like increasing the -n setting is a no-brainer, it turns out that a higher setting really only benefits brute-force attacks. The hashcat documentation recommends you try lower -n values when attempting dictionary attacks. Ultimately, the key is to experiment with both high and low values and see what gives you the best results.

Mask Attacks

In Part II of this series, I described two types of attacks: a dictionary attack and a brute-force attack. With a dictionary attack, you provide the cracking software with a dictionary full of possible passwords to try, such as all of the words in the English dictionary. A brute-force attack iterates through all possible combinations for a password of a certain length. Because a dictionary attack generally has way fewer passwords to try, it is much faster than a brute-force attack. Although a brute-force attack takes a long time, it also ultimately will find the passwords you are looking for.

It turns out you aren't limited by either a fast, possibly ineffective, attack or a highly effective, but slow, attack. With mask attacks, you can combine the speed of dictionary attacks with some of the thoroughness of a brute-force attack. Mask attacks work by making some educated guesses about the characters that might be used in a password. With a mask attack, you perform a brute-force attack only with a far smaller list of combinations to try all based on a pattern.

Mask attacks make more sense once you see an example. Let's say that you are attempting to crack a password, and you know the password policy requires the user to select at least one uppercase letter and at least one number. As I mentioned in my previous article, you can calculate how many combinations are in a particular type of password by taking the number of characters in the character set, figuring out how long the password is going to be, then raising the first number to the power of the second. So, for instance, if you wanted to do a thorough brute-force attack against the above password policy, you would have 62 characters in your character set (A–Za–z0–9) and with an eight-character password, the number of combinations would be: 628 = 218 trillion combinations.

At 350,000 comparisons per second on my password-cracking hardware, it would take me approximately 7,200 days, or 19 years, to complete the attack.

The fact of the matter is, when you tell most users to create an eight-character password that has at least one uppercase character and at least one number, most users aren't going to generate a truly random password. Instead, they likely will make the first letter uppercase and then use lowercase characters until they get to the end of the password, where they either will add a single number to the end of the password or they will put a four-digit year at the end—usually the year they were born, the year they graduated high school or the current year. A mask attack against the same password policy would build a brute-force pattern where you would just try an uppercase letter as the first character, lowercase for the next three, then either lowercase or numbers for the final four characters. In that case, the number of combinations would be: (26) * (263) * (364) = ~ 767 billion combinations.

On my hardware, that would take a bit more than 600 hours, or 25 days. Although that's a long time to crack a password, it's still a lot better than 19 years and likely will be effective against a large number of weaker passwords.

To describe this pattern, I use the same custom pattern language with maskprocessor that I used in the previous column for regular brute-force attacks, only in this case, I combine a custom pattern that includes all lowercase characters and numbers with a regular set of character patterns. The final maskprocessor command would look like:

/path/to/mp32.bin -1 ?d?l ?u?l?l?l?1?1?1?1

As you can see, I defined a special mask of ?d?l (0–9a–z) and assigned it to 1, then I created a password pattern where the first character was ?u (A–Z), the next three were ?l (a–z), and the final four were ?1 (0–9a–z). The complete command to attempt this mask attack against my phpass hashes with my new custom GPU tuning would be:

/path/to/mp32.bin -1 ?d?l ?u?l?l?l?1?1?1?1 | \
/path/to/oclHashcat-plus32.bin -m 400 -n 80 \
-o recovered_hashes phpass-hashes

Attack Rules

The final way to improve your attacks further is by applying rules to your dictionary attacks. A rule allows you to perform some sort of transformation against all the words in your dictionary. You might, for instance, not only try all your dictionary words, but also create a rule that adds a single digit to the end of the dictionary word. That will catch even more weak passwords and only increases the number of overall combinations by ten times.

Here's an even better example of how rules can help crack more tricky passwords. With the new requirement that users must have numbers in their password, a lot of users have resorted to "leet speak". For instance, instead of using "password" they might use "p455w0rd". The fact of the matter is, they still are using a dictionary word—they are just applying a basic transformation to it where a becomes 4, s becomes 5, o becomes 0, e becomes 3 and so on. When you want to crack such a password, all you have to do is add the -r option to hashcat and point it to a file that contains the rule you want to apply. Hashcat uses a custom language to define rules, but it's not too tricky to figure out, and the installation directory for oclhashcat has a rules directory that contains a number of rule files you can use as a reference. It even already includes a rule for leet speak, so if you wanted to perform a dictionary attack that took leet speak into account, it would look something like this if you ran it from within the oclhashcat-plus directory:

/path/to/oclHashcat-plus32.bin -m 400 \
-r ./rules/leetspeak.rule \
-o recovered_hashes example400.hash example.dict

For more information about rules, check out the documentation on the Hashcat Wiki at http://hashcat.net/wiki/rule_based_attack.

You now should have everything you need to refine your (completely legitimate and white hat) password-cracking attacks. On the Hashcat Wiki, you will find even more examples of types of attacks and examples you can use to improve your odds of cracking a password hash.


Main Hashcat Site: http://hashcat.net

Hashcat Wiki: http://hashcat.net/wiki

Hashcat Rules Documentation: http://hashcat.net/wiki/rule_based_attack

Password photo via Shutterstock.com


Kyle Rankin is a systems architect; and the author of DevOps Troubleshooting, The Official Ubuntu Server Book, Knoppix Hacks, Knoppix Pocket Reference, Linux Multimedia Hacks, and Ubuntu Hacks.


Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.

Now like vivienne westwood

viviennewestwood's picture

Now like vivienne westwood jewellery,you can consider the vivienne westwood earrings, vivienne westwood necklaces and vivienne westwood bracelets. Vivienne westwood accessories also includes vivienne westwood bags, vivienne westwood wallets and vivienne westwood brooches and so on vivienne westwood sale products.

hack safe

Robherval's picture

The hack safe is privilegies. in the site niteroi said more...

Reply to comment | Linux Journal

21st birthday party theme ideas's picture

What you said made a great deal of sense. But, consider this,
suppose you composed a catchier post title? I mean,
I don't want to tell you how to run your blog, but suppose you added something that makes people desire more? I mean Reply to comment | Linux Journal is a little plain. You might peek at Yahoo's
front page and note how they create article headlines to get viewers interested.
You might add a related video or a related picture or two to get readers interested
about what you've got to say. In my opinion, it could make your website a little livelier.

Reply to comment | Linux Journal

Scary Halloween Costumes's picture

I create a leave a response each time I like a
article on a site or if I have something to contribute to the conversation.
It is a result of the passion displayed in the article I read.
And on this article Reply to comment | Linux Journal. I was moved enough to drop a
commenta response ;) I actually do have 2 questions for you if it's okay. Could it be only me or do some of the comments appear like left by brain dead visitors? :-P And, if you are writing on other places, I would like to keep up with you. Could you list all of all your public sites like your linkedin profile, Facebook page or twitter feed?


Cavin's picture

No doubt this is one of the best news for us breeders image. We lost a lot of time trying to create a different reality for our images. Thanks to Blender's going to change. I read an article recently some features of Blender Camisetas on-line


serasa's picture

Thanks for sharing the information, It's very informative and helpful. and spc

Thanks for sharing the information

serasa's picture

Thanks for sharing the information, It's very informative and helpful. and

remote access

Matheus's picture

Thanks for sharing the information, It's very informative and helpful. and Escova Progressiva

Error Remote Accessj

Matheus's picture

Thanks for sharing the information, It's very informative and helpful. and Escova Progressiva

invasion of my hardware

serasa's picture

I had an spc serasa invasion of my hardware for a short time, the prejudice was great


serasa's picture

I had an invasion spc serasa of my hardware for a short time, the prejudice was great

hack bad

Glover's picture

spc I think you need to public source a steady cam! This program is too complex

email hack

Anonymous's picture

if you want to hack email accounts, use us.
Yahoo hack, facebook hack, msn hack, hotmail hack.
here is the answer
getmypassword .tk/
how to hack an email address.
how to find if cheating

gmail hack

vinipop's picture

Friend, to hack email accounts you can find at this site agregador de links, but use with caution and wisdom, does not harm anyone

Interesting article,

UK VPS's picture

Interesting article, particularly the masked attack scenarios. Maybe asking users to conform to strict password requirements isn't such a great idea after all :)

you need a moderator / spam filter

Sam Watkins's picture

Good day. I'd rather not read spam in the comments. Surely Linux journal can moderate or filter comments to avoid spam? Thanks for the article, I think my passwords are strong enough for now. Your captcha thing is annoying real users but not actually stopping comment spam. Use a moderator.

Reply to comment | Linux Journal

rampant rabbit's picture

Hi thеrе, afteг гeading this аmazing раragrаph
i am too cheeгful to share mу know-how hеrе with mates.

Reply to comment | Linux Journal

dowsing pendulum's picture

Intuition will allow accessing the insight ordinarily not accessible to our senses.
Refer to it as a still voice, a hunch or a gut feeling - as soon as
it starts happening you will realize that it's no chance.!
Dowsing is a art anyone can use to access the intuition working with dowsing pendulum as well as divining rod.
I've been using it for a long time and I really believe just about anyone can easily learn it.

Hack and / - Password Cracking with GPUs, Part III: Tune Your

Privacy Policy's picture

I have been exploring for a little for any high-quality articles
or blog posts on this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site.
Studying this information So i'm satisfied to express that I've an incredibly excellent uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I most unquestionably will make certain to don?t put out of your mind this website and give it a glance regularly.


Mesmilly's picture

yes observation Camiseta Personalizadas

Reply to comment | Linux Journal

bypasscaptcha's picture

Thanks designed for sharing such a good thinking, post is pleasant,
thats why i have read it completely

Reply to comment | Linux Journal

recommended you read's picture

Someone necessarily help to make seriously articles I would state.
This is the very first time I frequented your web page and to this
point? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular publish amazing.
Magnificent task!


symone's picture

I agree with you linux blog is the best of all simony lingerie

safe hack

mallony's picture

The best manage of key. Receitas de Comidas, thanks for can i participation do linuxjournal


majaron's picture

this blog so only we can offer to visitors can comment and talk with other members SKY

White Paper
Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI

Linux has become a key foundation for supporting today's rapidly growing IT environments. Linux is being used to deploy business applications and databases, trading on its reputation as a low-cost operating environment. For many IT organizations, Linux is a mainstay for deploying Web servers and has evolved from handling basic file, print, and utility workloads to running mission-critical applications and databases, physically, virtually, and in the cloud. As Linux grows in importance in terms of value to the business, managing Linux environments to high standards of service quality — availability, security, and performance — becomes an essential requirement for business success.

Learn More

Sponsored by Red Hat

White Paper
Private PaaS for the Agile Enterprise

If you already use virtualized infrastructure, you are well on your way to leveraging the power of the cloud. Virtualization offers the promise of limitless resources, but how do you manage that scalability when your DevOps team doesn’t scale? In today’s hypercompetitive markets, fast results can make a difference between leading the pack vs. obsolescence. Organizations need more benefits from cloud computing than just raw resources. They need agility, flexibility, convenience, ROI, and control.

Stackato private Platform-as-a-Service technology from ActiveState extends your private cloud infrastructure by creating a private PaaS to provide on-demand availability, flexibility, control, and ultimately, faster time-to-market for your enterprise.

Learn More

Sponsored by ActiveState