DRBD in a Heartbeat
About three years ago, I was planning a new server setup that would run our new portal as well as e-mail, databases, DNS and so forth. One of the most important goals was to create a redundant solution, so that if one of the servers failed, it wouldn't affect company operation.
I looked through a lot of the redundant solutions available for Linux at the time, and with most of them, I had trouble getting all the services we needed to run redundantly. After all, there is a very big difference in functionality between a Sendmail dæmon and a PostgreSQL dæmon.
In the end, though, I did find one solution that worked very well for our needs. It involves setting up a disk mirror between machines using the software DRBD and a high-availability monitor on those machines using Heartbeat.
DRBD mirrors a partition between two machines allowing only one of them to mount it at a time. Heartbeat then monitors the machines, and if it detects that one of the machines has died, it takes control by mounting the mirrored disk and starting all the services the other machine is running.
I've had this setup running for about three years now, and it has made the inevitable hardware failures unnoticeable to the company.
In this tutorial, I show you how to set up a redundant Sendmail system, because once you do that, you will be able to set up almost any service you need. We assume that your master server is called server1 and has an IP address of 192.168.1.1, and your slave server is called server2 and has an IP address of 192.168.1.2.
And, because you don't want to have to access your mail server on any of these addresses in case they are down, we will give it a virtual address of 192.168.1.5. You can, of course, change this to whatever address you want in the Heartbeat configuration that I discuss near the end of this article.
This high-availability solution works by replicating a disk partition in a master/slave mode. The server that is running as a master has full read/write access to that partition; whereas the server running as slave has absolutely no access to the partition but silently replicates all changes made by the master server.
Because of this, all the processes that need to access the replicated partition must be running on the master server. If the master server fails, the Heartbeat dæmon running on the slave server will tell DRBD that it is now the master, mount the replicated partition, and then start all the processes that have data stored on the replicated partition.
The first step for running a redundant system is having two machines ready to try it out. They don't need to have identical specs, but they should meet the following requirements:
Enough free space on both machines to create an equal-sized partition on each of them.
The same versions of the dæmons you want to run across both machines.
A network card with crossover cable or a hub/switch.
An optional serial port and serial port crossover cable for additional monitoring.
You also should think carefully about which services you want running on both machines, as this will affect the amount of hard disk you will need to dedicate to replication across them and how you will store the configuration and data files of these services.
It's very important that you have enough space on this shared partition, because it will be the main data storage location for all of these services. So, if you are going to be storing a large Sendmail spool or a database, you should make sure it has more than enough space to run for a long time before having to repartition and reconfigure DRBD for a larger disk size.
Once you've made sure your machines are ready, you can go ahead and create an equal-sized partition on both machines. At this stage, you do not need to create a filesystem on that partition, because you will do that only once it is running mirrored over DRBD.
For my servers, I have one DRBD replicated drive that looks like this on my partition tables:
/dev/sda5 7916 8853 7534453+ 83 Linux
Note: type fdisk -l at your command prompt to view a listing of your partitions in a format similar to that shown here. Also, in my case, the partition table is identical on both redundant machines.
The next step after partitioning is getting the packages for Heartbeat version 1.2+ and DRBD version 0.8+ installed and the DRBD kernel module compiled. If you can get these prepackaged for your distribution, it will probably be easier, but if not, you can download them from www.linux-ha.org/DownloadSoftware and www.drbd.org/download.html.
Now, go to your /etc/hosts file and add a couple lines, one for your primary and another for your secondary redundant server. Call one server1, the other server2, and finally, call one mail, and set the IP addresses appropriately. It should look something like this:
192.168.1.1 server1 192.168.1.2 server2 192.168.1.5 mail
Finally, on both your master and slave server, make a folder called /replicated, and add the following line to the /etc/fstab file:
/dev/drbd0 /replicated ext3 noauto 0 0