As the client side grows, and self-contained applications like these password managers increase, the need for basic services that are normally available in a development environment increase. In a normal development environment, the ability to manage data reliably is one of the first and key issues tackled. Sometimes, it leads to full-blown client-server database systems, like Oracle or MySQL. In other instances, it leads to embedded databases—for example, Apache Derby, which are critical for managing data within a single instance of an application.
Unfortunately, our browser development platform has lacked any such data management system. As it turns out, the availability of such a system is even more critical in the browser environment than in a server environment. For complete browser applications, the entire data set and transaction semantics are local and cannot depend on a server. For more traditional server-driven applications, the need is even more acute. Whereas a server can rely on redundancy, high bandwidth and low latency to its data store, the browser has none of these attributes. It becomes critically important for the browser application developer to be able to perform the majority of the application's data activities locally, sending the result to the server with the lowest frequency and bandwidth possible.
As anyone who has done even a moderate amount of development knows, data storage structures are, in many ways, the fundamental building block of any application. There are several good reasons for this:
Performance: choice of data structure can have a significant impact on application performance. For example, using a linked list versus a serial array is slower to access elements in the middle of the list, but much faster at list reorder and element insertion/addition/removal.
Usability: a standard data structure makes it much easier for someone else (or you) to understand what your application does and how.
Separation of concerns: by separating data structure and storage from business logic, you are able to work with each separately.
A good database structure addresses those concerns, while providing the following features:
Indexing: if you go to an arbitrary array or table of data and ask it to return all the records where the third field is equal to 2, you (or your data store engine) will need to go to each and every record and check whether the third field is equal to 2. This is called a full table scan, and it is terribly inefficient. For fields that are checked frequently, you would much prefer a more efficient method, one that does not require checking every single record linearly. This is known as indexing.
Transactions: in a simple world, events are single-stage and one-way. For example, login is a simple process: you enter your credentials and are either in or out. In the real world, however, events usually are multistage. For example, in order to transfer $100 from your checking account to your savings account, you need to deduct $100 from your checking account and add $100 to your savings account. Ideally, both steps will succeed. If both fail, it is not great, but you can live with it. However, if only one of the two succeeds, either you (if it is the deduction) or your bank (if it is the addition) will be very unhappy.
Events: sometimes, you want the database to tell you whether something of significance has occurred. For example, you may want to know that a certain table has been updated or perhaps that an account balance has dropped below a certain threshold. Many databases support events, often known as triggers, that cause reactions.
Because I am discussing the browser environment, one additional feature is important: persistence. A browser environment is a transient one; the moment users close their windows, all of the data is lost. Because the browser application relies on the server to provide permanence, you want a way to handle both loading your local data store from, as well as persisting our local changes back to, that server seamlessly.
jsormdb provides a solution to all of these problems. When configured correctly, the presentation and business logic within your application can treat jsormdb as the entire data store, leaving jsormdb to handle persistence to/from the server. Without jsormdb, your application looks like Figure 1.
With jsormdb, you can work with a much cleaner design (Figure 2).
In modern computer systems, privacy and security are mandatory. However, connections from the outside over public networks automatically imply risks. One easily available solution to avoid eavesdroppers’ attempts is SSH. But, its wide adoption during the past 21 years has made it a target for attackers, so hardening your system properly is a must.
Additionally, in highly regulated markets, you must comply with specific operational requirements, proving that you conform to standards and even that you have included new mandatory authentication methods, such as two-factor authentication. In this ebook, I discuss SSH and how to configure and manage it to guarantee that your network is safe, your data is secure and that you comply with relevant regulations.Get the Guide
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