New Hope for Digital Identity

Identity is personal. You need to start there.

In the natural world where we live and breathe, personal identity can get complicated, but it's not broken. If an Inuit family from Qikiqtaaluk wants to name their kid Anuun or Issorartuyok, they do, and the world copes. If the same kid later wants to call himself Steve, he does. Again, the world copes. So does Steve.

Much of that coping is done by Steve not identifying himself unless he needs to, and then by not revealing more than what's required. In most cases Steve isn't accessing a service, but merely engaging with other people, and in ways so casual that in most cases no harm is done if the other person forgets Steve's name or how he introduced himself. In fact, most of what happens in the social realms of the natural world are free of identifiers, and that's a feature rather than a bug. Dunbar's number exists for a reason. So does the fact that human memory is better at forgetting details than at remembering them. This too is a feature. Most of what we know is tacit rather than explicit. As the scientist and philosopher Michael Polanyi puts it (in perhaps his only quotable line), "We know more than we can tell." This is why we can easily recognize a person without being able to describe exactly how we do that, and without knowing his or her name or other specific "identifying" details about them.

Steve's identity can also be a claim that does not require proof, or even need to be accurate. For example, he may tell the barista at a coffee shop that his name is Clive to avoid confusion with the guy ahead of him who just said his name is Steve.

How we create and cope with identity in the natural world has lately come to be called self-sovereign, at least among digital identity obsessives such as myself. Self-sovereign identity starts by recognizing that the kind of naming we get from our parents, tribes and selves is at the root level of how identity works in the natural world, and needs to frame our approaches in the digital one as well.

Our main problem with identity in the digital world is that we understand it entirely in terms of organizations and their needs. These approaches are administrative rather than personal or social. They work for the convenience of organizations first. In administrative systems, identities are just records, usually kept in databases. Aside from your business card, every name imprinted on a rectangle in your wallet was issued to you by some administrative system: the government, the Department of Motor Vehicles, the school, the drug store chain. None are your identity. All are identifiers used by organizations to keep track of you.

For your inconvenience, every organization's identity system is also a separate and proprietary silo, even if it is built with open-source software and methods. Worse, an organization might have many different silo'd identity systems that know little or nothing about each other. Even an organization as unitary as a university might have completely different identity systems operating within HR, health care, parking, laundry, sports and IT—as well as within its scholastic realm, which also might have any number of different departmental administrative systems, each with its own record of students past and present.

While ways of "federating" identities between silos have been around since the last millennium, there is still no standard or open-source way for you to change, say, your surname or your mailing address with all the administrative systems you deal with, in one move. In fact, doing so is unthinkable as long as our understanding of identity remains framed inside the norms of silo'd administrative systems and thinking.

Administrative systems have been built into civilized life for as long as we've had governments, companies and churches, to name just three institutions. But every problem we ever had with any of those only got worse once we had ways to digitize what was wrong with them, and then to network the same problems. This is why our own ability to administrate the many different ways we are known to the world's identity systems only gets worse every time we click "accept" to some site's, service's or app's terms and conditions, and create yet another login, password and namespace to manage.

Unfortunately, the internet was first provisioned to the mass market over dial-up lines, and both ISPs and website developers made client-server the defaulted way to deal with people. By design, client-server is slave-master, because it puts nearly all power on the server side. The client has no more agency or identity than the server allows it.

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Doc Searls is Senior Editor of Linux Journal