How to Be Cute on All Desktops with Qt

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Qt always has been about cross-platform. By providing a rich API that isn't tied to a specific platform, Qt can be both intuitive to use and innovative.

The Qt toolkit originally was designed not only to be nice to work with, but also to allow for moving application source code between platforms. Today, the three major desktop environments are supported: X11, OS X and Windows. As portability is one of the key goals of the toolkit, it rarely runs into common issues, such as features missing on a specific platform or applications not integrating well in certain environments.

Qt's journey to fame really began more than ten years ago with the KDE Project. As one of KDE's cornerstones, it might come as a surprise to you that later incarnations of Qt try to integrate with GTK+ and GNOME. It even allows the incorporation of the glib event loop, all to fulfill the mission of providing portable code that looks and feels right on all platforms.

Looking Right

When discussing portable GUI source code, the graphical user interface is probably what comes to mind first. Providing widgets that look right on all platforms is an engineering feat. It takes many tricks to be able to use native painting methods, adapt to styling and just generally to fit in. Add to that the ability to subclass and customize widgets, and you have quite a handful of things that have to be incorporated.

And, making an application feel visually right on all platforms takes even more work. Margins, spacing, alignment—even the ordering of certain widgets—all need to be taken into account. Qt addresses all of these issues. A basic dialog window can be used to demonstrate how.

Figure 1 shows a property dialog with a set of labels to the left and fields for editing to the right. At the bottom are the standard Help, Apply, Ok and Cancel buttons. This might look like a simple dialog, but compare it to Figures 2 and 3. It's the same dialog, but on different platforms.

Figure 1. A Dialog in a KDE Environment

Figure 2. A Dialog in a Windows Environment

Figure 3. A Dialog in an OS X Environment

The platform imposes the order of the buttons at the bottom of the dialog, the alignment of the properties' labels, as well as the expansion policy of the fields representing the property values. All of these need to be handled according to the current platform's rules.

Customizing the Look

In some situations, blindly following the current platform's look and feel isn't what you are after. Sometimes you may want to subtly give hints to the user. For instance, you may want to highlight all required fields or change the color of a progress bar. Usually, this means subclassing the source widget to specialize it. Then, you will use your special widget for all the required fields. Now, imagine having not only text fields, but also check boxes, drop-down lists and more.

In Qt, you can address this problem in two ways. Either you can create a custom palette object that you apply to all fields you want to highlight or change color. Or, you can use a stylesheet.

The advantage of using stylesheets is that they allow more advanced operations. Figure 4 shows this in three steps. The top row of widgets uses the standard style, and the second row uses the following stylesheet:

QLineEdit {
  background-color: rgb(255, 255, 185);
}

QCheckBox::indicator:unchecked {
  image: url(:/images/cb-unchecked.png);
}

QRadioButton::indicator:unchecked {
  image: url(:/images/rb-unchecked.png);
}

Figure 4. From Standard Style to the Extreme

As you can see, the syntax was heavily inspired by the cascading stylesheets (CSS) used in Web design. The text field is an instance of the QLineEdit class. For it, it is enough to specify a background color. For the radio button and check box, you need to provide images that represent the indicator. More states than unchecked need to be included here, but to simplify for this example, they have been left out.

Merely changing the background color could have been achieved as easily by altering the specific widgets' palette. However, the last row in Figure 4 shows that you can go further. The stylesheet used here changes the font, text color, border and background. For the QLineEdit class, the stylesheet looks like this:

QLineEdit {
  color: red;
  font: 75 14pt "DejaVu Sans";

  border: 2px solid rgb(0, 112, 157);
  border-radius: 3px;

  background: qlineargradient(spread:pad, 
              ↪x1:0, y1:0, x2:0, y2:1, 
              ↪stop:0 black, stop:1 rgb(0, 112, 157));
}

As you can see, the color changes are not limited to only solid colors. The background is a gradient, and the whole shape of the border has been altered—all this, while still maintaining the source code's cross-platform portability.

______________________

Johan Thelin is a consultant working with Qt, embedded and free software. On-line, he is known as e8johan.

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