Hack and / - Migrate to a New Hard Drive
In another article in this issue of Linux Journal [page 84], I talk about my experiences with the new solid state drive (SSD) I installed on my laptop. One of the things I didn't mention in the article was how I transferred all my data and settings to the new drive. There are a number of ways to solve this problem. For instance, you could image the old drive onto the new one and then grow the last partition to fill up the presumably larger disk (which wouldn't work for me, as my new SSD actually was substantially smaller than the old drive). Other people just re-install their OS every time they get a new drive and then transfer their /home directory and other settings, but I've always had just enough custom programs and settings on my laptop for that method to be a pain. You also could use rsync with certain flags to migrate the files, and although I do like that method for network transfers, for local transfers, it can be a hassle, because it first must scan through the entire drive before it begins.
I've done many hard drive migrations during the years with a tried-and-true combination of find piped to cpio. I like this method because it uses common tools that are sure to be installed, it starts immediately and doesn't need to scan the drive, and with the right flags, it correctly can handle (and avoid) special filesystems, such as /proc, /sys and so on. So far, it hasn't failed me, and this migration was no exception. However, this time, I did run into a few gotchas that I will talk about shortly. First, onto the basic steps.
You don't want files to be changed as you are copying them, so you don't want to do this migration from your normal desktop environment. Typically, I boot in to a rescue disk like Knoppix, so that the filesystem stays frozen. Other times, I simply switch to single-user mode, so most files won't change. For desktop systems, I generally just connect both drives directly to the system, and for laptops, I use a USB hard drive adapter, so that both can be connected at the same time. For my last migration, I didn't happen to have a USB adapter for a 1.8" drive, so I transferred the data to an intermediate drive first, then installed the new drive and transferred again.
You can use any partitioning tool that works for you—from fdisk to qtparted. This may sound obvious, but make sure that you allocate plenty of room to fit your existing data, and if you move to a larger hard drive, plenty of room to grow. Once you partition the drive, use mkfs or your preferred formatting tool to write a filesystem to each partition (or mkswap for the swap partition).
Create mountpoints under /mnt for the new partitions you have created. For my example, I have a root partition at /dev/sdb1 and a home partition at /dev/sdb3, so I would type as root:
mkdir /mnt/sdb1 mkdir /mnt/sdb3 mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/sdb1 mount /dev/sdb3 /mnt/sdb3
If you run this from a rescue disk, you also need to make sure your source partitions are mounted as well.
Now this spell doesn't have a lot to it, but it's funny how you memorize scripts like this over the years after using them and passing them along to friends. First, change to the root level of the partition you want to copy and then execute the command as root. So, to migrate my root partition from single-user mode, I did the following:
cd / find ./ -xdev -print0 | cpio -pa0V /mnt/sdb1
To migrate from a rescue disk, the command is almost identical, but you change to the mountpoint of the source partition instead (I mounted it at /dev/sda1):
cd /mnt/sda1 find ./ -xdev -print0 | cpio -pa0V /mnt/sdb1
The find command searches through the entire root partition for files and directories. The -xdev flag tells find to stay within the current mounted filesystem. Otherwise, when find gets to /home, it would copy the contents of that directory as well and potentially fill up the new partition. It then passes the files to cpio, which places them under my new mountpoint while preserving permissions, symlinks and other settings. The cpio command also outputs one dot for each file it copies, so you can have some sense of its progress. However, what I typically do is go to another terminal and monitor the output of df so I can watch it grow:
Once the first find | cpio command completes, repeat it for each of your other partitions. In my example, if I were in single-user mode, I'd do the following:
cd /home find ./ -xdev -print0 | cpio -pa0V /mnt/sdb3
If I were using a rescue disk, I'd do this:
cd /mnt/sda3 find ./ -xdev -print0 | cpio -pa0V /mnt/sdb3
Kyle Rankin is a VP of engineering operations at Final, Inc., the author of a number of books including DevOps Troubleshooting and The Official Ubuntu Server Book, and is a columnist for Linux Journal. Follow him @kylerankin.
Fast/Flexible Linux OS Recovery
On Demand Now
In this live one-hour webinar, learn how to enhance your existing backup strategies for complete disaster recovery preparedness using Storix System Backup Administrator (SBAdmin), a highly flexible full-system recovery solution for UNIX and Linux systems.
Join Linux Journal's Shawn Powers and David Huffman, President/CEO, Storix, Inc.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- Astronomy for KDE
- Profiles and RC Files
- Understanding Ceph and Its Place in the Market
- Git 2.9 Released
- Maru OS Brings Debian to Your Phone
- What's Our Next Fight?
- The Giant Zero, Part 0.x
- Snappy Moves to New Platforms
- OpenSwitch Finds a New Home
With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide