How a Linux Distro Saved Hard Disk Data
Not too long ago, a friend sent me an e-mail that said, "I want to ask for a favor and see if you can help me to recover the data in the hard disk of my daughter's PC." I came to learn that some combination of utilities had wiped out the partition table in the master boot record (MBR). Maybe a tool such as fdisk could fix this problem, but the cylinder numbers weren't available. This article describes how, using a typical Linux distro (SuSE 8.0, in this case) it was possible to recover the master boot record and, with it, my friend's daughter's data.
My friend's e-mail went on to explain:
The original configuration was Windows 98SE with GoBack installed. GoBack is a utility that is supposed to help disaster recovery by rolling back to earlier checkpoints. I disabled GoBack and set up a dual boot of Windows98 and XP on her PC since my daughter wanted to run a school program that only works on XP. Unfortunately, the school program did not work. So I deleted the XP partition with Partition Magic 7 and disabled the BootMagic. Then I re-enabled GoBack. Everything seemed to work fine for a couple of weeks.
Murphy's law dictates that disaster would strike while I was in Toronto. Norton SystemWorks was scheduled to run on Friday nights. No problem during the first couple of weeks. But when I was visiting my brother last week in Toronto, Norton reported a lost cluster. My daughter OKed the fix and, from that time on, the system would not boot.
In particular, when booting from the hard disk drive (HDD), the NT Loader (NTLDR) wasn't found. Trying to boot win98 from floppy produced a message about no FAT or FAT32 partition being found. Diagnostic programs pronounced the hardware healthy. My friend continued:
To my horror, I found that GoBack wrote on the MBR (Master Boot Record) using its proprietary format. The disk was originally divided into 4 partitions. But GoBack made the whole disk appear as a single partition of 40GB now since the software cannot access the partition tables in the MBR.
As sometimes happens, the vendor's recovery instructions didn't work. My friend was a little desperate, and I thought I could help, so I accepted the challenge. He told me that if we could recover only the files in the "data" partition, that would be enough: "I told her to back up her data every week, but...". You know the rest. Anyway, my friend handed over the disk drive, and I considered how to make use of tools I had on hand to help him out.
I was lucky enough to have a "spare" desktop PC, which had been rescued from the dumpster a few months before. From loading SuSE 8.0 on it, I remembered that the hard drive was on /dev/hda (IDE0 "master") and a CD-writer was at /dev/hdc (IDE1 "master"). (See Sidebar 1 below for a brief review of IDE addressing.) This setup was good, because it meant two IDE ribbon cables were in the box--one for IDE0 and one for IDE1--and one might have a spare connector in a convenient physical location.
Opening up the case, I found that the IDE1 ribbon cable, connected to the CD-writer (/dev/hdc), had a spare connector near a spare drive bay, as shown in Figure 1.
Referring to the legend printed on the disk drive (see Figure 2), I configured the jumpers on my friend's drive to be "slave". The connectors on the back of the drive are shown in Figure 3, and a close-up of "J5" is shown in Figure 4.
You might notice that the jumper is connecting pins A-C together. I placed the jumper there, in the "spare jumper" position, so it wouldn't get lost.
I then powered down my PC, inserted the damaged drive into the spare drive bay--as shown in Figure 1--and connected it using the IDE1 ribbon cable. I also connected a power cable.
When I booted up my machine after completing these steps, the scrolling messages showed that "hdd" was recognized. I was in business.
So, what did fdisk think of my friend's HDD?
% sudo fdisk -l /dev/hdd Disk /dev/hdd: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 5005 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/hdd1 * 1 5005 40202631 44 Unknown %
Sure enough, it found a single partition of type 0x44. I was unable to find any reference that explained this type of partition. I then examined the partition table directly.
% dd if=/dev/hdd bs=512 count=1 | od -x ... 0180 0000700 0001 fe44 ffff 003f 0000 e30e 04ca 0000 0000720 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 * 0000760 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 aa55
The infamous od program prints 16-bit quantities as big-endian "short" ints. Because x86 architecture is little-endian, I should not have used od. I would have done better to issue hexdump -C. Then, the offsets would have been in hex rather than octal, and the bytes would have been printed one at a time.
That said, let's dissect this partition table. It has only one entry, at bytes 0676-0715 (0x1be-0x1cd), with contents
80 01 01 00 44 fe ff ff 3f 00 00 00 0e e3 ca 04
Looking at a site that describes the partition table, such as this one, we see the breakdown is:
80: bootable flag (YES) 01,01,00: starting C/H/S 44: filesystem descriptor fe,ff,ff: ending C/H/S 3f,00,00,00: starting logical sector (32-bit) 0e,e3,ca,04: ending logical sector (32-bit)
where the starting C/H/S is head 1, sector 1, cylinder 0, and the ending C/H/S is head 0xfe (254), sector 0x3f (63), cylinder 0x3ff (1023). The cylinder number is suspicious, because all available bits are set to 1. I guess that's what happens when you try to represent cylinder number 5004 in ten bits. (Sidebar 2 contains a brief refresher on C/H/S addressing; Wikipedia probably has a better one.)
Looking at the 32-bit logical sector numbers shows that the disk should have 0x04cae30e (80405262) sectors, which exactly matches the 40202631 blocks of "1K" or 1024 bytes each that are shown above.
Sure enough, this partition table was useless. It should have been simple enough to fix using fdisk or cfdisk or sfdisk. The old fdisk is my favorite, but that's only because I'm a dinosaur; you don't have to follow my example. All I needed was the original cylinder numbers, and I could just plug them in.
Do you remember this bit of advice your distro's installation manual: "Keep a hardcopy of your output from fdisk -l"? This situation is exactly why you're advised to save that printout. If that information had been available, a few commands could have restored everything on my friend's HDD.
But, of course, the cylinder number information wasn't available, as I soon found out from my friend:
Windows does not give you the cylinder and block numbers. The original first partition C was 8G. I think I shrank it to 6G (or 4GB) and created an XP partition of 2G (or 4GB). Then I deleted the XP partition but did not expand the C partition back to original due to lack of time (I had to leave her apartment). The second partition D (for applications) is 8G. The third one E (for data) is 2G. Then the rest 20G for drive F (for multimedia).
What to do? Should I add up the amount of space my friend told me and pray that the partition began right there? This option didn't seem safe to me. Although the data partition probably began about 16GB from the start of the disk, I didn't know if a GB here was 1000MB or 1024MB? For that matter, what's an MB--1000KB or 1024KB? Worse, my friend's memory of partition sizes didn't seem to be 100% rock solid either.
I was hoping that there might be a telltale sign at the beginning of each FAT partition. I wasn't sure what exactly to look for, although I knew each partition had a "boot sector" containing the filesystem parameters, such as the super block of ext2 and other filesystems. But what did it look like?
Figuring that I'd have to look at a lot of sectors, I hacked together a script, which would print out the contents of
* head 0, sector 0 * head 0, sector 1 * head 1, sector 0
I chose these because the partition's boot sector probably would be in one of those positions in some cylinder or another. At this point, I must apologize because I refer to the first sector as 0, whereas traditionally it's referred to as 1.
The first 3,000 cylinders would cover over 20GB, which ought to include completely the desired data partition. The script deduces the size of each track and cylinder by looking at the fdisk output. I stored the results in a rather large disk file, where I was hoping to find some commonalities regarding where each partition was likely to begin. Then, I hoped, it would be obvious exactly where partition E began, as that was the important one. Anyway, here's the script:
#!/bin/bash cyl=0 # let's start at the very beginning disk=/dev/hdd climit=3000 # about 3/5 of the disk # I am gonna take it for granted that the disk sector size is "1b" or 512. SECTS=`fdisk -l $disk | sed -n '/^Disk/s/^.* \([1-9][0-9]*\) *sector.*$/\1/p'` CYLSIZE=`fdisk -l $disk | sed -n '/^Units/s/^.*cylinders of *\([1-9][0-9]*\) *\*.*$/\1/p'` ((count=SECTS+1)) echo on disk $disk, cylinder size is $CYLSIZE blocks echo I am going to make $climit passes, each time reading $count sectors echo and printing sectors 0, 1, and $SECTS echo 'Is this OK? Hit ctrl-C if not.' read X echo -n 'OK, abandon hope all ye who proceed. Start in five seconds.' sleep 5 echo Done. while [[ $cyl -lt $climit ]] ; do ((skip=cyl*CYLSIZE)) dd if=$disk of=/tmp/x bs=1b skip=$skip count=$count 2>/dev/null echo Cylinder $cyl sector 0: dd if=/tmp/x bs=1b count=1 conv=swab 2>/dev/null | od -Ax -x dd if=/tmp/x bs=1b count=1 2>/dev/null | od -Ax -c echo Cylinder $cyl sector 1: dd if=/tmp/x bs=1b skip=1 count=1 conv=swab 2>/dev/null | od -Ax -x dd if=/tmp/x bs=1b skip=1 count=1 2>/dev/null | od -Ax -c echo Cylinder $cyl sector $SECTS: dd if=/tmp/x bs=1b skip=$SECTS count=1 conv=swab 2>/dev/null | od -Ax -x dd if=/tmp/x bs=1b skip=$SECTS count=1 2>/dev/null | od -Ax -c ((cyl=cyl+1)) done > out
Looking at the potential boot sectors on my friend's disk, I found out that I was very lucky. Not only was there a boot sector at each partition, there was another partition table at each partition. These partition tables announced their presence by the tell-tale byte pattern 55,AA at the end of the sector. The swab in the script means I could search for 55AA *$ in the file and see exactly where this nice pattern was located. According to Werner Almesberger's excellent LILO User's Guide, this is what happens when all partitions are logical partitions. His guide, which contains a detailed description of the disk layout, is located at /usr/doc/packages/lilo/user.ps.gz on my distribution. Or you can Google on "lilo user guide", without the quotes, of course.
If the disk had been repartitioned many times, I might have found a bunch of residual 55AAs lying around. Instead, I found only one extra occurrence--where my friend had deleted the XP partition.
The partition table closest to 16GB from the beginning of the disk happened to be 2073 cylinders in. From the fdisk output above, a cylinder is 16065 * 512 bytes. So 2073 cylinders is fairly close to 17GB, if a GB is 1000*1000*1000 bytes:
% dc 2073 512* 16065*p 17051005440
But if a GB is 1024MB, and if an MB is 1024KB, then 16GB would be
16 1024*1024*1024*p 17179869184
This seemed about right. Looking at the partition table, I discovered that the partition began 33302808 sectors from the start of the disk. This works out to 63 sectors from the beginning of cylinder 2073, or cylinder 2074 if you start counting with cylinder 1.
The size of the partition, translated into decimal, was 2040192 sectors. This works out to be 63 sectors shy of 127 cylinders. That is, 127 * 16065 - 63 = 2040192. So it looked like my friend's E drive occupied 127 cylinders. But I wasn't 100% sure this was true, and I didn't want to write on his disk until I was 100% sure.
Another thing: as alert readers may have noticed, 2040192 sectors works out to about 1GB for the size of the E partition, rather than the 2GB my friend remembered.
From here, I copied out a subset of the disk onto a spare area on my disk, something like this:
# dd if=/dev/hdd of=/extra/diskimage bs=512 skip=33302808 count=2040192 # mount -t vfat -o ro,loop /extra/diskimage /mnt # ls /mnt
And it worked! This step provided me with a sanity check without actually writing on the disk drive. I even ran a du and sent the results to my friend. He was very encouraged that I was able to get to this point.
I burned a Windows-visible CD from the data on the partition, but I had trouble with one file. It had a very long name, well beyond the 64-character limit on the Joliet extension. At the time, I don't think I knew about the -joliet-long option to mkisofs. Anyway, I told mkisofs to hide that file from the Joliet directory and then e-mailed the file to my friend separately, using mpack(1).
Exactly how did I burn the Windows-visible CD? True confession: I don't remember. But the process probably was similar to the way I described in this earlier article.
Not being completely confident in my ability to burn a Windows-visible CD, I took the CD with me to the office, where the corporate Windows laptop was able to read it just fine. I e-mailed my friend a Windows Explorer screenshot and told myself that even if I later trashed the disk drive, at least I had the CD to give him.
My friend was delighted that his daughter would soon have her data back. He told me that if I was short on time--and I was--that it would be enough simply to get the data partition back. So I contented myself with only partitioning the drive that far.
Remembering that fdisk numbers the cylinders starting at 1 rather than 0, I told the HDD to
delete the old 0x44 partition
create a primary partition of about 16GB (2073 cylinders)
create an extended partition starting at cylinder 2074
create a FAT32 partition starting at cylinder 2074, occupying 127 cylinders and ending at the end of cylinder 2200
Command (m for help): m Command action a toggle a bootable flag b edit bsd disklabel c toggle the dos compatibility flag d delete a partition l list known partition types m print this menu n add a new partition o create a new empty DOS partition table p print the partition table q quit without saving changes s create a new empty Sun disklabel t change a partition's system id u change display/entry units v verify the partition table w write table to disk and exit x extra functionality (experts only) Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/hdd: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 5005 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/hdd1 * 1 5005 40202631 44 Unknown Command (m for help): d Partition number (1-4): 1 Command (m for help): n Command action e extended p primary partition (1-4) p Partition number (1-4): 1 First cylinder (1-5005, default 1): Using default value 1 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-5005, default 5005): 2073 Command (m for help): n Command action e extended p primary partition (1-4) e Partition number (1-4): 2 First cylinder (2074-5005, default 2074): Using default value 2074 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (2074-5005, default 5005): Using default value 5005 Command (m for help): n Command action l logical (5 or over) p primary partition (1-4) l First cylinder (2074-5005, default 2074): Using default value 2074 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (2074-5005, default 5005): 2200 Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/hdd: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 5005 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/hdd1 1 2073 16651341 83 Linux /dev/hdd2 2074 5005 23551290 5 Extended /dev/hdd5 2074 2200 1020096 83 Linux Command (m for help): t Partition number (1-5): 5 Hex code (type L to list codes): L 0 Empty 1c Hidden Win95 FA 65 Novell Netware bb Boot Wizard hid 1 FAT12 1e Hidden Win95 FA 70 DiskSecure Mult c1 DRDOS/sec (FAT- 2 XENIX root 24 NEC DOS 75 PC/IX c4 DRDOS/sec (FAT- 3 XENIX usr 39 Plan 9 80 Old Minix c6 DRDOS/sec (FAT- 4 FAT16 <32M 3c PartitionMagic 81 Minix / old Lin c7 Syrinx 5 Extended 40 Venix 80286 82 Linux swap da Non-FS data 6 FAT16 41 PPC PReP Boot 83 Linux db CP/M / CTOS / . 7 HPFS/NTFS 42 SFS 84 OS/2 hidden C: de Dell Utility 8 AIX 4d QNX4.x 85 Linux extended df BootIt 9 AIX bootable 4e QNX4.x 2nd part 86 NTFS volume set e1 DOS access a OS/2 Boot Manag 4f QNX4.x 3rd part 87 NTFS volume set e3 DOS R/O b Win95 FAT32 50 OnTrack DM 8e Linux LVM e4 SpeedStor c Win95 FAT32 (LB 51 OnTrack DM6 Aux 93 Amoeba eb BeOS fs e Win95 FAT16 (LB 52 CP/M 94 Amoeba BBT ee EFI GPT f Win95 Ext'd (LB 53 OnTrack DM6 Aux 9f BSD/OS ef EFI (FAT-12/16/ 10 OPUS 54 OnTrackDM6 a0 IBM Thinkpad hi f0 Linux/PA-RISC b 11 Hidden FAT12 55 EZ-Drive a5 FreeBSD f1 SpeedStor 12 Compaq diagnost 56 Golden Bow a6 OpenBSD f4 SpeedStor 14 Hidden FAT16 <3 5c Priam Edisk a7 NeXTSTEP f2 DOS secondary 16 Hidden FAT16 61 SpeedStor a9 NetBSD fd Linux raid auto 17 Hidden HPFS/NTF 63 GNU HURD or Sys b7 BSDI fs fe LANstep 18 AST SmartSleep 64 Novell Netware b8 BSDI swap ff BBT 1b Hidden Win95 FA Hex code (type L to list codes): b Changed system type of partition 5 to b (Win95 FAT32) Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/hdd: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 5005 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/hdd1 1 2073 16651341 83 Linux /dev/hdd2 2074 5005 23551290 5 Extended /dev/hdd5 2074 2200 1020096 b Win95 FAT32 Command (m for help): w The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table. WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x partitions, please see the fdisk manual page for additional information. Syncing disks. pav23:/home/collin # mount -t vfat -o ro /dev/hdd5 /mnt pav23:/home/collin # ls /mnt [[DELETED... it worked]] pav23:/home/collin #
I congratulated myself, disconnected the drive from the ribbon cable, put my spare desktop back together and cleaned up the den. I then returned the disk drive to my friend, along with the CD I had burned.
A typical PC has two IDE buses, allowing four separate disk or CD drives to be connected:
IDE bus 0 +-------- "master" = /dev/hda +-------- "slave" = /dev/hdb IDE bus 1 +-------- "master" = /dev/hdc <---corrected +-------- "slave" = /dev/hdd <---corrected
Note that one drive on a given IDE bus is the so-called "master" and one is the "slave." These are traditional misnomers, but the thing to remember is that conflicts must be avoided. For example, two masters on a single bus equals bad medicine.
If you have only one disk or CD drive on a given IDE bus, it used to be important to make sure this one drive was configured as master. It may or may not be necessary for your particular controller. I've violated this rule at times and nothing bad has happened. But, if you have a slave-without-master configuration and things are flaky or don't work at all, it might be worth a try to make the slave into the master.
What determines whether a particular drive is a master or a slave on the bus? Every ATA drive I've seen answers this question with one word: jumper. Depending on the position of the jumper(s), a drive can declare itself to be master, declare itself to be slave or say cable select. Cable select means the drive's orientation depends on which connector on the cable it's plugged into. Apparently there is a wiring trick on the cable that allows the drive to know which connector it's plugged into and, hence, whether it should respond to commands directed at the master or the slave drive. I don't recommend the cable select (CS) setting, because of past reports of flaky behavior.
Here is a brief tutorial for those unfamiliar with C/H/S addressing. More elegant explanations probably are available elsewhere on the Web, but here's my take on the topic.
Imagine your disk drive as a set of platters stacked one above the other and spinning in unison. The platters are divided into concentric tracks, with track 0 typically nearest the outer rim. One point in the platters' rotation is arbitrarily defined as "sector 0".
Each platter is coated on both sides with magnetic material. Just micro-inches from each surface is a head that can read or write data. The heads can move toward the outer rim or toward the center of the platters, but they do not spin. To read and write data on a particular sector on a particular track, the heads must "seek" to the appropriate track, settle into place and then wait for the desired sector to pass under the heads so that the data can be read or written.
In the old days, disk drives could be accessed in "surface mode" or "cylinder mode". In surface mode, head 0 track 0 is followed by head 0 track 1, then head 0 track 2, and so on. At the end of each track, you have to move the head to the next track. This makes surface mode slow, but it was useful for disk drives with one fixed and one removable platter.
In cylinder mode, head 0 track 0 is followed by head 1 track 0 and so on. That is, once sector 0 is under the heads, you don't have to move the heads right away. Instead, you switch to using the next read/write head. Only when you've read track 0 with all heads do you need to move the heads to track 1. This group, track 0 on all heads, collectively is referred to as cylinder zero.
The BIOS on most PCs and utilities such as fdisk refer to blocks on the disk in terms of cylinder, head and sector numbers. For historical reasons, the heads are numbered starting at 0, and the number is represented in 8 bits. Sectors are numbered starting at 1, and the numbers are represented in 6 bits. Cylinders are numbered from 0 and are represented in 10 bits. Older BIOSes could address the disk using only this C/H/S method; thus, they could address only the first 1024 cylinders on a drive. This is why it used to be important to put your Linux kernel on a partition that was contained entirely within the first 1024 cylinders.
When you buy a disk drive today, you likely will see "255 heads, 63 sectors, N cylinders" written on it. There are not really 255 heads in such a disk drive, but the drive identifies itself that way to the BIOS to allow C/H/S addressing to get at the largest possible area on the disk.
Although the cylinders are fictional nowadays, the BIOS and the partitioning utilities still want disk partitions to begin at cylinder boundaries.
By the way, newer BIOSes aren't restricted to C/H/S addressing, in particular to the old 1024-cylinder limit. Instead, every 512-byte block on the disk drive can be addressed using a 32-bit linear address space. This is what "lba32" in lilo.conf means. Newer BIOSes thus can access over a terabyte (1000 gigabytes), which ought to be enough for at least a few more months.
Collin Park works for Network Appliance, where he uses Linux on his desktop and laptop computers. He does data recovery and other Linux-related stuff at home, where he lives with his wife and their two teenage daughters. All use Linux to meet their computing needs.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
Join Linux Journal's Mike Diehl and Pat Cameron of Help Systems.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- SourceClear Open
- SUSE LLC's SUSE Manager
- Tech Tip: Really Simple HTTP Server with Python
- My +1 Sword of Productivity
- Managing Linux Using Puppet
- Murat Yener and Onur Dundar's Expert Android Studio (Wrox)
- Non-Linux FOSS: Caffeine!
- Google's SwiftShader Released
- Doing for User Space What We Did for Kernel Space
- SuperTuxKart 0.9.2 Released
With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide