Filesystem Indexing with libferris
Jumping right in, I first create a full-text index in /tmp, add some files to it and then query for files using the index. First, I create a directory for the new index and use gfcreate to set up the new index in that directory:
$ mkdir /tmp/text-index $ gfcreate /tmp/text-index
The GUI for gfcreate shows the major MIME types in the leftmost tab, with a misc tab for things that can be created and that are considered distinct from MIME. After selecting misc, all the available index formats are shown in a second level of tabs. In Figure 1, I've chosen to create a Xapian full-text index using English for word stemming and ignoring word case.
When adding files to the full-text index, libferris attempts to use the as-text EA to obtain a textual representation of the file. Many plugins have been created supporting the as-text EA; PDF files, HTML files, man pages and djvu images all support as-text.
The findexadd and findexquery tools can be told which index to use with the -P command-line option. The following uses a PDF file and man page from the Samba 3.0.3 package as example input. As paths will vary depending on your Linux distribution, prefixes to the files have been replaced with /.../:
$ findexadd -P /tmp/text-index \ /.../samba-3.0.3/docs/Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf $ findexquery -P /tmp/text-index samba ID 1 99% [file://.../Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf] Found 1 matches at the following locations: file://.../Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf $ findexadd -P /tmp/text-index /.../samba.7.gz $ findexquery -P /tmp/text-index smbstatus ID 1 100% [file://.../Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf] ID 5 93% [file://.../samba.7.gz] Found 2 matches at the following locations: file://.../Samba-HOWTO-Collection.pdf file://.../samba.7.gz
The most interesting options for findexquery are the -P for setting the path to the index, the --ranked option for performing ranked full-text queries and --xapian for passing raw Xapian format queries to the back end (see Resources).
The default query format is Boolean. In this format, all alphanumeric words are looked up in the index and there are four Boolean operators that are used infix. These are & (and), | (or), ! (not) and - (minus). Ranked mode combines all terms and returns a list of documents that are the most interesting based on your query. In Xapian format, libferris hands the query directly to the back end for processing; currently, only the Xapian back end can handle such queries.
The procedure for adding to and querying EA indexes closely follows that of full-text indexing. EA indexes use the feaindexadd and feaindexquery commands, which both accept the -P /path-to-index option.
There are three parameters for overall tuning of EA indexes. These can be set when the EA index is created. They relate to the EA you are interested in indexing for your files. For example, you can create a lean EA index containing only filenames, sizes and some image properties for use in image file searching. You also may choose to ignore some EAs that take a while to calculate or that are not relevant to your search. For example, if you are not planning to use the index for integrity checking, ignoring the MD5, SHA-1 and other checksums saves considerable time, because these checksums require the entire file to be read for each file being added to the index.
The first of the general EA index parameters is the max-values-size-to-index parameter that defines the largest byte length for a value to be added to the index for any attribute. Most EAs should be fairly short values in the range of less than 100 bytes. The default is to be lenient and allow up to 1,024 bytes to be used by any individual EA value. The other two attributes are attributes-not-to-index and attributes-not-to-index-regex. These define the names of EAs to be ignored when files are being added to the index. There is a direct trade-off between indexing all EAs, which makes adding files slower but preserves all information for queries or indexing only a subset of EAs, which makes the adding faster but then some queries will not execute.
The defaults for the not-to-index parameters should allow files to be added fairly quickly but still allow many interesting EAs to be indexed. These defaults for these three parameters can be overridden by running the cc/capplets/index/ferris-capplet-index tool, which sets the defaults for new index creation and alters your ~/.ferris indexes for future file indexing.
For the EA index we use a PostgreSQL database to store the index. For seamless EA index creation, a minor setup step is required before running the fcreate tools. The PGSQL language must be enabled by default for new databases. The command below does this when run as root:
# createlang -d template1 plpgsql
If you don't want to change the template1 database, you can create the PostgreSQL database manually, enable plpgsql for the new database and append db-exists=1 to the fcreate command line below.
For PostgreSQL EA indexes, you also can set the user name, password, host, port and dbname for use by the PostgreSQL database. By default (db-exists=0) the database with name dbname must not exist and will be created for this new EA index.
There is another tweakable parameter for EA indexes that use a relational database as their implementation, allowing you to change how some EAs are normalized in the relational database. Once again, the default values should be acceptable. I explain this trade-off in a moment.
The extra-columns-to-inline-in-docmap gives a list of EAs that are so important to searching they should be denormalized into the docmap table. EAs that have a unique value for almost every file will be stored more efficiently inline in the docmap table. To denormalize an EA in this way, you must provide the SQL type for that EA as well.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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