I2C Drivers, Part II

Here's what has to happen to read the sensors that report the temperature, fan speed and other important system health information.

That call creates the sysfs files for the device:

/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009
|-- detach_state
|-- name
|-- power
|   `-- state
|-- temp_input
|-- temp_max
`-- temp_min

The file name is created by the I2C core, and the files detach_state and power/state are created by the driver core.

But, let's go back to the DEVICE_ATTR macro. That macro wants to know the name of the file to be created, the mode of the file to be created, the name of the function to be called when the file is read from and the name of the function to be called when the file is written to. For the file temp_max, this declaration was:


static DEVICE_ATTR(temp_max, S_IWUSR | S_IRUGO,
                   show_temp_max, set_temp_max);

The function called when the file is read from is show_temp_max. This is defined, as are many sysfs files, with another macro that creates a function:


#define show(value) \
static ssize_t \
show_##value(struct device *dev, char *buf)        \
{                                                  \
    struct i2c_client *client = to_i2c_client(dev);\
    struct chip_data *data =                       \
        i2c_get_clientdata(client);                \
                                                   \
    chip_update_client(client);                    \
    return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", data->value);      \
}
show(temp_max);
show(temp_hyst);
show(temp_input);

The reason this function is created with a macro is that it is quite simple to create other sysfs files that do almost the same thing, with different names and that read from different variables, without having to duplicate code. This single macro creates three different functions to read from three different variables from the struct chip_data structure.

In this function, the struct device * is converted into a struct i2c_client *. Then the private struct chip_data * is obtained from the struct i2c_client *. After that the chip data is updated with a call to chip_update_client. From there, the variable that has been asked for is printed into a buffer and returned to the driver core, which then returns it to the user:

$ cat /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009/temp_input
1

The chip_update_client increments all values by one every time it is called:


static void
chip_update_client(struct i2c_client *client)
{
    struct chip_data *data =
        i2c_get_clientdata(client);

    down(&data->update_lock);
    dev_dbg(&client->dev, "%s\n", __FUNCTION__);
    ++data->temp_input;
    ++data->temp_max;
    ++data->temp_hyst;
    data->last_updated = jiffies;
    data->valid = 1;
    up(&data->update_lock);
}

So, all subsequent requests for this value are different:

$ cat /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009/temp_input
2
$ cat /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009/temp_input
3

The set_temp_max function also is created from a macro to allow variables to be written to:


#define set(value, reg)	\
static ssize_t                                     \
set_##value(struct device *dev,                    \
            const char *buf, size_t count)         \
{                                                  \
    struct i2c_client *client = to_i2c_client(dev);\
    struct chip_data *data =                       \
        i2c_get_clientdata(client);                \
    int temp = simple_strtoul(buf, NULL, 10);      \
                                                   \
    down(&data->update_lock);                      \
    data->value = temp;                            \
    up(&data->update_lock);                        \
    return count;                                  \
}
set(temp_max, REG_TEMP_OS);
set(temp_hyst, REG_TEMP_HYST);

Just like the show functions, this function converts the struct device * to a struct i2c_client *, and then the private struct chip_data * is found. The data the user provides then is turned into a number with a call to simple_strtoul and is saved into the proper variable:

$ cat /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009/temp_max
1
$ echo 41 > /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009/temp_max
$ cat /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:06.0/i2c-0/0-0009/temp_max
42

Cleaning Up

When the I2C chip device is removed from the system, either by the I2C bus driver being unloaded or by the I2C chip driver being unloaded, the I2C core calls the detatch_client function specified in the struct i2c_driver structure. This usually is a simple function, as can be seen in the example driver's implementation:


static int chip_detach_client(struct i2c_client *client)
{
    struct chip_data *data = i2c_get_clientdata(client);
    int err;

    err = i2c_detach_client(client);
    if (err) {
        dev_err(&client->dev,
                "Client deregistration failed, "
                "client not detached.\n");
        return err;
    }
    kfree(client);
    kfree(data);
    return 0;
}

As the i2c_attach_client function was called to register the struct i2c_client structure with the I2C core, the i2c_detach_client function must be called to unregister it. If that function succeeds, the memory the driver has allocated for the I2C device then needs to be freed before returning from the function.

This example driver does not specifically remove the sysfs files from the sysfs core. This step is done automatically in the driver core within the i2c_detach_client function. But if the author would like, the file can be removed manually by a call to device_remove_file.

______________________

Comments

Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.

How the adapter driver verifies the specified address

Anonymous's picture

"The i2c_detect function probes the I2C adapter, looking for the different addresses specified in the addr_data structure. If a device is found, the chip_detect function then is called"

Note quite understand, how the adapter driver looks for the address specified. How does it know there is a device at the other end bus would have the address, if it does not read/write some thing from the device. But the adapter driver does not know how to read/write to the device.

RE: How the adapter driver verifies the specified address

Anonymous's picture

Same question here

To probe or not to probe...

Marc's picture

kamou:

I'm currently struggling with a similar issue. I'm trying to write a driver for an image sensor which can be controlled via I2C. I'm still trying to wrap my head around how to get a character device and an I2C driver to coexist in a single device driver. I got around the whole SENSORS_INSMOD_1 macro issue by hard coding the I2C address since this is known a priori for my application. Therefore I do not call i2c_detect in the attach_adapter() callback. However, to enable probing, I found that if the normal_i2c, normal_i2c_range, normal_isa, and normal_isa_range macros are populated with proper address data, the invocation of the SENSORS_INSMOD_1 macro will set up the addr_data structure accordingly. The i2c_detect then probes only those addresses in the range specified by these arrays. When one is found the callback provided to i2c_detect (chip_detect in the article's example) is invoked to setup a client for that chip.

My question, however, is there seems to be an m:n ratio of adapters to i2c busses. I'm trying to figure out how to manage that within a single char device driver. I'm currently looking at the i2c-dev implementation, however, this uses the old style of registering character devices which I'm not familiar with so I'm not 100% sure what's going on. Does anyone have any insight and silently using an I2C chip driver from within a char device driver?

trying to write a driver for an audio chip

kamou's picture

hello !

I'm trying to write a driver for an audio chip, this chip can be controlled via i2c bus (i2c-0)

the problem is that I don't understand how I can "open" the i2c-0 in kernel space...
I tried to do as le lm75 sensor driver...but it's not better..
I know that I have to register my driver as an i2c driver with the i2c_add_driver function

does this:

static int
chip_attach_adapter(struct i2c_adapter *adapter)
{
return i2c_detect(adapter, &addr_data,
chip_detect);
}

probes every i2c bus on my board ?
and I don't understand what addr_data is or what it does,
I know it is in the SENSORS_INSMOD_1 macro
but I'm not writing a driver for a sensor, but for an audio chip...

can anyone help me understand better all this ?

White Paper
Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI

Linux has become a key foundation for supporting today's rapidly growing IT environments. Linux is being used to deploy business applications and databases, trading on its reputation as a low-cost operating environment. For many IT organizations, Linux is a mainstay for deploying Web servers and has evolved from handling basic file, print, and utility workloads to running mission-critical applications and databases, physically, virtually, and in the cloud. As Linux grows in importance in terms of value to the business, managing Linux environments to high standards of service quality — availability, security, and performance — becomes an essential requirement for business success.

Learn More

Sponsored by Red Hat

White Paper
Private PaaS for the Agile Enterprise

If you already use virtualized infrastructure, you are well on your way to leveraging the power of the cloud. Virtualization offers the promise of limitless resources, but how do you manage that scalability when your DevOps team doesn’t scale? In today’s hypercompetitive markets, fast results can make a difference between leading the pack vs. obsolescence. Organizations need more benefits from cloud computing than just raw resources. They need agility, flexibility, convenience, ROI, and control.

Stackato private Platform-as-a-Service technology from ActiveState extends your private cloud infrastructure by creating a private PaaS to provide on-demand availability, flexibility, control, and ultimately, faster time-to-market for your enterprise.

Learn More

Sponsored by ActiveState