Kernel Korner - Allocating Memory in the Kernel
Unfortunately for kernel developers, allocating memory in the kernel is not as simple as allocating memory in user space. A number of factors contribute to the complication, among them:
The kernel is limited to about 1GB of virtual and physical memory.
The kernel's memory is not pageable.
The kernel usually wants physically contiguous memory.
Often, the kernel must allocate the memory without sleeping.
Mistakes in the kernel have a much higher price than they do elsewhere.
Although easy access to an abundance of memory certainly is not a luxury to the kernel, a little understanding of the issues can go a long way toward making the process relatively painless.
The general interface for allocating memory inside of the kernel is kmalloc():
#include <linux/slab.h> void * kmalloc(size_t size, int flags);
It should look familiar—it is pretty much the same as user space's malloc(), after all—except that it takes a second argument, flags. Let's ignore flags for a second and see what we recognize. First off, size is the same here as in malloc()'s—it specifies the size in bytes of the allocation. Upon successful return, kmalloc() returns a pointer to size bytes of memory. The alignment of the allocated memory is suitable for storage of and access to any type of object. As with malloc(), kmalloc() can fail, and you must check its return value against NULL. Let's look at an example:
struct falcon *p; p = kmalloc(sizeof (struct falcon), GFP_KERNEL); if (!p) /* the allocation failed - handle appropriately */
The flags field controls the behavior of memory allocation. We can divide flags into three groups: action modifiers, zone modifiers and types. Action modifiers tell the kernel how to allocate memory. They specify, for example, whether the kernel can sleep (that is, whether the call to kmalloc() can block) in order to satisfy the allocation. Zone modifiers, on the other hand, tell the kernel from where the request should be satisfied. For example, some requests may need to be satisfied from memory that hardware can access through direct memory access (DMA). Finally, type flags specify a type of allocation. They group together relevant action and zone modifiers into a single mnemonic. In general, instead of specifying multiple action and zone modifiers, you specify a single type flag.
Table 1 is a listing of the action modifiers, and Table 2 is a listing of the zone modifiers. Many different flags can be used; allocating memory in the kernel is nontrivial. It is possible to control many aspects of memory allocation in the kernel. Your code should use the type flags and not the individual action and zone modifiers. The two most common flags are GFP_ATOMIC and GFP_KERNEL. Nearly all of your kernel memory allocations should specify one of these two flags.
Table 1. Action Modifiers
|__GFP_COLD||The kernel should use cache cold pages.|
|__GFP_FS||The kernel can start filesystem I/O.|
|__GFP_HIGH||The kernel can access emergency pools.|
|__GFP_IO||The kernel can start disk I/O.|
|__GFP_NOFAIL||The kernel can repeat the allocation.|
|__GFP_NORETRY||The kernel does not retry if the allocation fails.|
|__GFP_NOWARN||The kernel does not print failure warnings.|
|__GFP_REPEAT||The kernel repeats the allocation if it fails.|
|__GFP_WAIT||The kernel can sleep.|
Table 2. Zone Modifiers
|__GFP_DMA||Allocate only DMA-capable memory.|
|No flag||Allocate from wherever available.|
The GFP_ATOMIC flag instructs the memory allocator never to block. Use this flag in situations where it cannot sleep—where it must remain atomic—such as interrupt handlers, bottom halves and process context code that is holding a lock. Because the kernel cannot block the allocation and try to free up sufficient memory to satisfy the request, an allocation specifying GFP_ATOMIC has a lesser chance of succeeding than one that does not. Nonetheless, if your current context is incapable of sleeping, it is your only choice. Using GFP_ATOMIC is simple:
struct wolf *p; p = kmalloc(sizeof (struct wolf), GFP_ATOMIC); if (!p) /* error */
Conversely, the GFP_KERNEL flag specifies a normal kernel allocation. Use this flag in code executing in process context without any locks. A call to kmalloc() with this flag can sleep; thus, you must use this flag only when it is safe to do so. The kernel utilizes the ability to sleep in order to free memory, if needed. Therefore, allocations that specify this flag have a greater chance of succeeding. If insufficient memory is available, for example, the kernel can block the requesting code and swap some inactive pages to disk, shrink the in-memory caches, write out buffers and so on.
Sometimes, as when writing an ISA device driver, you need to ensure that the memory allocated is capable of undergoing DMA. For ISA devices, this is memory in the first 16MB of physical memory. To ensure that the kernel allocates from this specific memory, use the GFP_DMA flag. Generally, you would use this flag in conjunction with either GFP_ATOMIC or GFP_KERNEL; you can combine flags with a binary OR operation. For example, to instruct the kernel to allocate DMA-capable memory and to sleep if needed, do:
char *buf; /* we want DMA-capable memory, * and we can sleep if needed */ buf = kmalloc(BUF_LEN, GFP_DMA | GFP_KERNEL); if (!buf) /* error */
Table 3 is a listing of the type flags, and Table 4 shows to which type flag each action and zone modifier equates. The header <linux/gfp.h> defines all of the flags.
Table 3. Types
|GFP_ATOMIC||The allocation is high-priority and does not sleep. This is the flag to use in interrupt handlers, bottom halves and other situations where you cannot sleep.|
|GFP_DMA||This is an allocation of DMA-capable memory. Device drivers that need DMA-capable memory use this flag.|
|GFP_KERNEL||This is a normal allocation and might block. This is the flag to use in process context code when it is safe to sleep.|
|GFP_NOFS||This allocation might block and might initiate disk I/O, but it does not initiate a filesystem operation. This is the flag to use in filesystem code when you cannot start another filesystem operation.|
|GFP_NOIO||This allocation might block, but it does not initiate block I/O. This is the flag to use in block layer code when you cannot start more block I/O.|
|GFP_USER||This is a normal allocation and might block. This flag is used to allocate memory for user-space processes.|
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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