Introducing the 2.6 Kernel

Scheduler and audio improvements are only two of the features you'll notice when the 2.5 development series becomes 2.6. Here's a kernel hacker's view into the near future.

The kernel has come a long way since Linus branched off 2.4.15 to create 2.5.0 back on November 22, 2001. Since then, rapid development has ensued, resulting in a drastically different and much-improved kernel. This article discusses the more interesting, important features and their impact on the performance and reliability of Linux.

History of 2.5 Thus Far

In Linux kernel parlance, the minor version number of a kernel denotes whether that kernel belongs to a stable series or a development series. Even minor version numbers denote stable kernels, and odd minor version numbers denote development kernels. When a development kernel is fully mature and deemed stable, its minor version number is incremented to an even value. For example, the 2.3 kernel development series gave way to the 2.4 stable series.

The current development kernel is 2.5. The initial work on a development series is quite brisk, and many new features and improvements are incorporated. When Linus and the kernel developers are satisfied with the new feature set, a feature-freeze is declared, which has the purpose of slowing development. The last feature-freeze occurred on October 31, 2002. Ideally, when a feature-freeze is declared, Linus will not accept new features—only additions to existing work. When the existing features are complete and nearly stable, a code-freeze is declared. During a code-freeze, only bug fixes are accepted, in order to prepare the kernel for a stable release.

When the development series is complete, Linus releases the kernel as stable. This time around, the stable kernel most likely will be version 2.6.0. Although the official release date is “when it is done”, a good estimate is third or fourth quarter 2003.

In March 2001 and again in June 2002, the core kernel developers met at Kernel Summits to discuss the kernel. The primary goal of 2.5 was to bring the aging block layer (the part of the kernel responsible for block devices, such as hard drives) into the 21st century. Other concerns centered on scalability, system response and virtual memory (VM). The kernel hackers met all—and many more—of these goals. The list of important new features includes:

  • O(1) scheduler

  • preemptive kernel

  • latency improvements

  • redesigned block layer

  • improved VM subsystem

  • improved threading support

  • new sound layer

In this article, I discuss a lot of new technology and innovation that has gone into the 2.5 kernel and will appear in 2.6. The development is the result of hard work from many individuals. I am going to refrain from mentioning names, because if I start giving credit I inevitably will miss some people, and I would rather give no list than an incomplete or incorrect one. The Linux Kernel Mailing List archive is a good source of who did what.

O(1) Scheduler

The process scheduler (or, simply, the scheduler) is the subsystem of the kernel responsible for allocating processor time. It decides which process gets to run when. This is not always an easy job. From a possibly large list of processes, the scheduler must ensure that the most worthy one is always running. When there is a large number of runnable processes, selecting the best process may take some time. Machines with multiple processors only add to the challenge.

Improvements to the scheduler ranked high on the list of needed improvements. Specifically, developers had three specific goals:

  • The scheduler should provide full O(1) scheduling. Every algorithm in the scheduler should complete in constant time, regardless of the number of running processes.

  • The scheduler should have perfect SMP scalability. Ideally, each processor should have its own locking and individual runqueue. A runqueue is the list of runnable processes from which the scheduler chooses.

  • The scheduler should have improved SMP affinity. It should naturally attempt to group tasks on a specific CPU and run them there. It should migrate tasks from one CPU to another only to resolve imbalances in runqueue length.

The new scheduler accomplishes all of these goals. The first goal was full O(1) scheduling. O(1) denotes an algorithm that executes in constant (fixed) time. The number of runnable tasks on a system—or any other variable, for that matter—has no bearing on the time to execute any part of the scheduler. Consider the algorithm for deciding which task should run next. This job involves looking at the highest priority task, with timeslice remaining, that is runnable. In the previous scheduler, the algorithm was analogous to:

for (each runnable process on the system) {
        find worthiness of this process
        if (this is the worthiest process yet) {
                remember it
        }
}
run the most worthy process

With this algorithm, the worthiness of each process must be checked. This implies the algorithm loops n-times for n processes. Hence, this is an O(n) algorithm—it scales linearly with the number of processes.

Conversely, the new scheduler is constant with respect to the number of processes; it does not matter whether there are five or 5,000 runnable processes on the system. It always takes the same amount of time to select and begin executing a new process:

get the highest priority level that has processes
get first process in the list at that priority level
run this process

In this algorithm, it is possible to simply “get the highest priority level” and “get first process in the list”, because the scheduler keeps track of these things. It simply has to look up, instead of search for, these values. Consequently, the new scheduler can select the next process to schedule without looping over all runnable processes.

The second goal is perfect SMP scalability. This implies the performance of the scheduler on a given processor remains the same as one adds more processors to the system, which was not the case with the previous scheduler. Instead, the performance of the scheduler degraded as the number of processors increased, due to lock contention. The overhead of keeping the scheduler and all of its data structures consistent is reasonably high, and the largest source of this contention was the runqueue. To ensure that only one processor can concurrently manipulate the runqueue, it is protected by a lock. This means, effectively, only one processor can execute the scheduler concurrently.

To solve this problem, the new scheduler divides the single global runqueue into a unique runqueue per processor. This design is often called a multiqueue scheduler. Each processor's runqueue has a separate selection of the runnable tasks on a system. When a specific processor executes the scheduler, it selects only from its runqueue. Consequently, the runqueues receive much less contention, and performance does not degrade as the number of processors in the system increases. Figure 1 is an example of a dual-processor machine with a global runqueue vs. a dual-processor machine with per-processor runqueues.

Figure 1. Left, the 2.4 Runqueue; Right, the 2.5/2.6 Runqueue

The third and final goal was improved SMP affinity. The previous Linux scheduler had the undesirable characteristic of bouncing processes between multiple processors. Developers call this behavior the ping-pong effect. Table 1 demonstrates this effect at its worst.

Table 1. A Worst-Case Example of the Ping-Pong Effect

The new scheduler solves this problem, thanks to the new per-processor runqueues. Because each processor has a unique list of runnable processes, processes remain on the same processor. Table 2 shows an example of this improved behavior. Of course, sometimes processes do need to move from one processor to another, like when an imbalance in the number of processes on each processor occurs. In this case, a special load balancer mechanism migrates processes to even out the runqueues. This action occurs relatively infrequently, so SMP affinity is well preserved.

Table 2. The New Scheduler Preserves CPU Affinity

The new scheduler has a lot more features than its name implies. Table 3 is a benchmark showing off the new scheduler.

Table 3. The chatserver benchmark tests message passing between a large number of processes. Results are in messages/second.

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