QUORUM: Prepaid Internet at the University of Zululand
The University of Zululand is a “historically disadvantaged” university campus with approximately 6,000 students located in the northeastern coastal region of South Africa. Our disadvantaged legacy continues in post-apartheid South Africa, and our students are mostly black and are from financially disadvantaged backgrounds. Consequently, our operating budgets are severely constrained, and the daily challenge of doing more with less prevails.
In this environment, Linux is the obvious choice for our internet services platform, and we use it for practically everything: e-mail and WWW servers, DNS, DHCP, HTTP proxies, firewalling and dial-up access. Our management loves the “free-as-in-beer” aspect of Linux. However, our main reason for using Linux is more compelling—using Linux is the most fun way to deliver our internet services.
Early in 2000, our biggest financial challenge was to provide internet access to all our staff and students. The cost of internet bandwidth in South Africa is much higher than in the US. Our 128Kbps access circuit was costing approximately $5,000 US per month. This circuit already was saturated during the day by our 400 staff users, and we still needed to provide internet access to the 350 workstations in our heavily used student labs.
We needed more bandwidth, but our budget wouldn't cover doubling or tripling our access bandwidth. Without monitoring or placing controls on internet usage, management was uneasy about committing to large increases in spending on internet access. They were skeptical of paying large monthly bills when they didn't know who was using the Internet or for what purpose.
Our problem was really one of how to provide an acceptable quality of service (QoS) for WWW browsing within our budgetary constraints. With unregulated internet access, congestion of the access circuit is the only factor limiting demand, which usually leads to the poorest QoS that the core group of die-hard downloaders can bear.
We needed to provide some type of “cost” for internet usage in order to regulate demand. This system would educate our users about the real costs of providing internet access at the university. For students, this cost should be prepaid. The level of bad tuition debt at disadvantaged universities in South Africa is a significant problem, and we didn't want to add bills for internet access to the debt collection problem. We needed a quota system for internet usage.
Our bandwidth constraints have since eased with the introduction of a new network for higher education in 2001. We upgraded our internet access to 768Kbps (384Kbps CIR for international traffic), while maintaining our monthly costs at roughly the same level. However, we remain convinced that our quota system is still necessary for maintaining a reasonable QoS for our users.
We use NLANR's popular Squid HTTP caching proxy software to provide WWW access for our users. Our firewall ensures that staff and students must use our proxy servers to access the WWW, and we configured the proxies to require login names and passwords for WWW access. With this configuration, the access.log file generated by Squid has a complete record of all WWW activity for all users. Tallying WWW usage for a given user is straightforward with the information in access.log.
Squid can use external URL redirector programs. When a URL redirector is configured, every URL request to the proxy is sent to the standard input of the URL redirector program, which responds by either telling the proxy to fetch the requested URL or to redirect the request to a different URL. This feature is used by content filtering with programs like SquidGuard where the URL redirector checks each URL request against a database of undesirable URL patterns. Any request for an undesirable URL is redirected to a page telling the user that she may not view the requested URL.
We realised that a URL redirector also could be used to enforce usage quotas. The URL redirector checks the user's quota, and if it has been exceeded, it would redirect her to a page telling her she was out of credit. While simple in principle, this has to happen quickly or it impacts the overall performance of the proxy server. In our implementation, the URL redirector usually responds in two milliseconds when the URL request is permitted.
|Happy Birthday Linux||Aug 25, 2016|
|ContainerCon Vendors Offer Flexible Solutions for Managing All Your New Micro-VMs||Aug 24, 2016|
|Updates from LinuxCon and ContainerCon, Toronto, August 2016||Aug 23, 2016|
|NVMe over Fabrics Support Coming to the Linux 4.8 Kernel||Aug 22, 2016|
|What I Wish I’d Known When I Was an Embedded Linux Newbie||Aug 18, 2016|
|Pandas||Aug 17, 2016|
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- Happy Birthday Linux
- Updates from LinuxCon and ContainerCon, Toronto, August 2016
- ContainerCon Vendors Offer Flexible Solutions for Managing All Your New Micro-VMs
- New Version of GParted
- What I Wish I’d Known When I Was an Embedded Linux Newbie
- Tor 0.2.8.6 Is Released
- NVMe over Fabrics Support Coming to the Linux 4.8 Kernel
- Blender for Visual Effects
- All about printf
With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide