Real Time and Linux, Part 3: Sub-Kernels and Benchmarks
In the first two articles of this series [see ``Real Time and Linux'' in the January/February 2002 issue and ``Real Time and Linux, Part 2: the Preemptible Kernel'' in the March/April 2002 issue of ELJ], we examined the fundamental concepts of real time and efforts to make the Linux kernel more responsive. In this article we examine two approaches to real time that involve the introduction of a separate, small, real-time kernel between the hardware and Linux. We also return to benchmarking and compare a desktop/server Linux kernel to modified kernels.
We note and discuss no further that LynuxWorks and OnCore Systems provide proprietary kernels that provide some Linux compatibility. LynuxWorks provides a real-time kernel that implements a Linux compatible API. OnCore Systems provides a real-time microkernel that provides Linux functionality in a variety of ways. These allow one to run a Linux kernel, with real-time performance of its processes, on top of their microkernel.
In this article we concern ourselves primarily with single-CPU real time. When more than one CPU is used, new solutions to real time are possible. For example, one may avoid system calls on a CPU on which a real-time process is waiting. This avoids the kernel-preemption problem altogether. One may be able to direct interrupts to a particular CPU and away from another particular CPU, thus avoiding interrupt latency issues. All of the Linux real-time solutions, incidentally, are usable on multi-CPU systems. In addition, RTAI for example, has additional functionality for multiple CPUs. We are focused, however, on the needs of embedded Linux developers, and most embedded Linux devices have a single general-purpose CPU.
A typical real-time system has a few tasks that must be executed in a deterministic, real-time manner. In addition, it is frequently the case that response to hardware interrupts must be deterministic. A clever idea is to create a small operating system kernel that provides these mechanisms and provides for running a Linux kernel as well, to supply the complete complement of Linux functionality.
Thus, these real-time sub-kernels deliver an API for tasking, interrupt handling and communication with Linux processes. Linux is suspended while the sub-kernel's tasks run or while the sub-kernel is dealing with an interrupt. As a consequence, for example, Linux is not allowed to disable interrupts. Also, these sub-kernels are not complete operating systems. They do not have a full complement of device drivers. They don't provide extensive libraries. They are an addition to Linux, not a standalone operating system.
There is a natural tendency, however, for these sub-kernels to grow in complexity, from software release to software release, as more and more functionality is incorporated. A major aspect of their virtue, though, is that one may still take advantage of all the benefits of Linux in one's application. It is just that the real-time portion of the application is handled separately by the sub-kernel.
Some view this situation as Linux being treated as the lowest priority, or idle, task of the sub-kernel OS. Figure 1 depicts the relationship of the sub-kernel and Linux.
The sub-kernels are created with Linux by doing three things: 1) patching a Linux kernel to provide a few hooks for things like added functionality, 2) modifying the interrupt handling and 3) creating loadable modules to provide the bulk of the API and functionality.
Sub-kernels provide an API for use by the real-time tasks. The APIs they provide resemble POSIX threads, other POSIX functions and additional unique functions. Using the sub-kernels means that the real-time tasks are using APIs that may be familiar to Linux programmers, but they are separate implementations and sometimes differ.
Interrupt handling is modified by patching the kernel source tree. The patches change the functions, for example, that are ordinarily used to disable interrupts. Thus, when the kernel and drivers in the Linux sub-tree are recompiled, they will not actually be able to disable interrupts. It is important to note this change because it means, for example, that a driver compiled separately from these modified headers may actually disable interrupts and thwart the real-time technique. Additionally, nonstandard code that, say, simply inlines an interrupt-disabling assembly language instruction will likewise thwart it. Fortunately, in practice, these are not likely situations and certainly can be avoided. They are examples to reinforce the idea that no real-time solution is completely free from caveats.
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