Coding between Mouse and Keyboard, Part I
The days when writing GUI applications was a matter between you and your favorite text editor struggling with a compiler and make are long gone. Even without an integrated development environment (IDE) like KDevelop, a lot of helper applications promise to make C++ GUI programming as painless as possible.
Whoever expects the KDE-proven Qt toolkit to be a tarball consisting of one library will be disappointed when fetching more than 14MB from ftp.trolltech.com/pub/qt/source. Though Qt was known for its good quality in previous versions, Qt 3.0 had so many bugs that since its first appearance in mid-October 2001, already the fourth maintenance release has come out. It is expected that more will be following. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to choose the latest version.
The qt-x11-free-3.0.x.tar.gz (we used Qt 3.0.4) archive includes not only the class library and documentation in HTML format but also several tools that promise to make life easier for everyone involved in a GUI application project.
Let's pick the new version of Qt Designer to create the graphical interface of a simple text editor application. [The entire code for this editor is available at www.trish.de/pub/linuxjournal/ljeditor_qt3.0.4.] With it comes the user-interface compiler, uic, that converts the Designer's XML output format into C++ code. In Part II of this article we'll actually write some C++ code with your favorite editor and fill the GUI framework with life.
Then, we'll use a new member of the Qt family, Qt Linguist, to localize the program. Like Qt Designer, this is a GUI application using an XML format for input and output. To create the XML list of phrases requiring translation, it ships with a command-line tool named lupdate. Once they have been translated, another command-line tool, lrelease, converts the XML into the binary format required at application runtime.
Writing Makefiles for Qt applications is not really a trivial thing. Older versions of Qt did not ship with a helper application, but Qt vendor Trolltech offered a tool called tmake for separate download. The Qt 3.0 tarball includes the new qmake utility that comes in handy to create the Makefile for the project. This again we leave for Part II of this article.
With the g++ compiler we have all necessary tools together and should think about the text editor application itself. What should it be able to do?
Obviously we want it to offer the usual tasks: opening a new editor window, opening a file, saving its contents, saving it with a different filename, closing the current editor window and quitting the entire application. Moreover, it should support copy, cut and paste, undo and redo. We want the program to be able to switch font characteristics to italic, bold, underlined and any combination of these. In an About widget, the editor (let's call it ljedit) should reveal some information about itself.
Apart from the changing of font characteristics, all tasks should be available via a File, an Edit or a Help menu. The italics, bold and underline toggling should be done via a submenu in the toolbar populated with additional icons for opening and saving a file, undo, redo, cut, copy and paste.
Each of these icons should open a balloon help when the user hesitates over it with the mouse. Apart from the Save As and the Exit action, all other tasks should be available via keyboard shortcuts.
To avoid users losing data unexpectedly, opening and closing a file as well as exiting the application should be backed by a user dialog that asks whether the old data should be saved or discarded, or whether the user wants to stay with the old file. While most of the above-mentioned tasks can be done with the Designer, this last bit will have to wait until next issue.
If more than one version of Qt is installed on the system, the QTDIR variable should first be set to the directory containing the relevant Qt version. Next, it's time to fire up the Designer with a designer & in a shell. In case the directory $QTDIR/bin has not been included in the search path or several Qt versions are available, the absolute path must be added to the command. To start a new project choose New from the File menu. In the upcoming dialog, click the C++ Project icon and confirm your choice with the OK button. Now we have the opportunity to create a new qmake project file by choosing name, location and adding a project description (Figure 1).
Next, we choose the New entry from the File menu once again in order to create the first (and for the purposes of this article only) GUI widget of our editor. Thus, Main Window is the right entry to choose from the New File dialog. We're happy with the default Insert entry that makes it a part of our new project.
This opens the Main Window Wizard. With the first questionnaire (see Figure 2) we feel that yes, Designer should create menus and the toolbar for us. It should provide us with a code framework for the functions used and connect these functions to the relevant actions.
The Next> button brings us to a setup dialog for the toolbar. From the File Category, we choose Open and Save and add them to the Toolbar list using the arrow to the right. Then we choose the Edit Category and add the Undo, Redo, Cut, Copy and Paste actions, plus Separators (Figure 3). The last wizard dialog does not leave any work for us to do; it simply finishes the widget form. This leaves us with a Designer looking like Figure 4.
All the new widget is missing in order to look like a proper editor is a nice name in the window caption (currently reading Form1) and the text edit canvas. To solve the first task we need to have a look at the Properties tab in the Property Editor window. It always fills itself with the characteristics of the current widget (i.e., the one last clicked on the form); to begin with this is the form widget.
By changing the property name to “ljeditor” we define the class name of the widget we're creating. On the other hand, caption defines the window caption and should be set to the new application's name, “ljedit”.
Now, let's add the editor canvas. Click on the Richtext Editor icon (in Figure 4, the fifth icon from the right labeled “abcde”), then click on the rastered background of the ljeditor form, and the new editor canvas can be resized by pulling it in shape with the blue handler points. Let's baptize it “TextEdit” in the Property Editor.
All we have to do now is adjust functionality. First we remove the actions we don't want to implement from the Action Editor (see Figure 5) by clicking on the scissors icon or the Delete Action entry in the context menu available with a right-click onto the marked action. In this example, we can do without helpIndexAction, helpContentsAction, editFindAction and filePrintAction.
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