Web Servers and Dynamic Content
The greatest deterrent to writing web programs in these legacy languages, and probably the greatest driver behind the development of Perl and PHP, has been the difficulty and security risks involved in developing applications that have the smarts and know-how to parse and avoid hacker attacks when data is passed to them from the web browser using only environment variables and the standard input stream.
The first thorny issue that must be solved is an easy and memory- efficient method of parsing up this data so that one can simply select the field they are looking for and obtain the data in a one-shot, one-kill fashion. In addition, certain security issues need to be plugged, such as data overruns from a misbehaving client browser intended to overwrite application memory with the overrun data (or deny service).
I present here, for your browsing pleasure, a series of functions that provide just such a safe and secure one-shot, one-kill approach to obtaining POST data in these legacy languages. The specific example I present is in C but can easily be ported to Fortran or wrapped for C++:
char *TextField = GetFormStringValue("TextField"); int NumericField = GetFormIntegerValue("IntegerField"); float FloatField = GetFormFloatValue("FloatField");
The source for these functions is shown in Listing 2 and the source for their support functions is shown in Listing 3. [Due to the length of Listing 2 and 3, they are available from our ftp site, ftp.linuxjournal.com/pub/lj/listings/issue82.] All of these functions have been tested to work equally well in UNIX and Windows development environments and both compensate for both buffer overruns and underruns. When any of these functions are first called, dynamic memory allocation to capture and parse the POST data is performed in the background. Its parsed form is then held in memory and, on subsequent calls to any of these functions, simple linear scans of the fields in this memory space are performed. Memory allocation is performed only once, and all conversion of escape sequences and special characters is performed linearly within this memory space (no other temporary space is used to accomplish this).
Since the example shown here is in simple C, which cannot provide automatic desructors the way that C++ can, it is necessary to call one cleanup function when your program exits: ReleaseFormData()
This is necessary to release the dynamically allocated memory buffer. If these functions are ported to a C++ class, it is simply necessary to call this function in the destructor method of the class to which the POST data access functionality is ported. Therefore, a simple framework for your legacy language CGI program is shown in Listing 4.
Of course, we have only scratched the tip of iceberg with what is possible when you unleash the power of a fast and efficient language like C/C++ for development of web application, without the added drag of having to perform all of the mundane jobs normally performed by a script interpreter. It is easy for us to see why we need to expand this discussion to include the following:
Using the local file system to maintain “state” for your CGI programs.
Why state can be maintained on the local file system in Linux without the concerns for disk overhead one might have on other operating systems.
Creating, modifying and destroying cookies on your client browser from your CGI programs.
Setting up security so that only you and the CGI program can access the state information in the files on your local file system and nobody else.
Thinking ahead to lightweight threads and fast-CGI.
Editorial Advisory Panel
Thank you to our 2014 Editorial Advisors!
- Jeff Parent
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- Dennis Frey
- Philip Jacob
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- Steve Marquez
- Dave McAllister
- Craig Oda
- Mike Roberts
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- Patrick Swartz
- David Lynch
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- Thomas Quinlan
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- Charnell Luchich
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- Hari Boukis
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- David Lane