The Penguin and the Dinosaur
Although Linux began its life on the Intel x86 architecture and still has strong roots there, it is highly portable. Linux runs on everything from SGIs at the high end to Palm Pilots, Psion PDAs and tiny embedded microcontrollers at the low end.
Linux's world just got a little larger. It now runs on the IBM System/390 mainframe. That's right; there is now a port of Linux to the IBM System/390 mainframe architecture. Once you've booted it, it works much like you'd expect any other Linux system to. As a matter of fact, there are two ports: there's IBM's, which runs only on relatively recent System/390 machines and was developed in secret, and there's also Linas Vepstas' “Bigfoot” port, which runs on older System/370 machines as well and was done as a proper open-source project. Bigfoot was quite close to running—it boots the kernel and loads /bin/sh—when IBM dropped the bomb. Reconciliation of the two projects is an ongoing and somewhat acrimonious issue.
I can hear some readers scratching their heads in puzzlement. If you have a mainframe, you presumably already have a perfectly good and extremely expensive operating system for it, right? Running Linux on such a machine means taking down what is almost certainly an incredibly expensive and probably highly loaded production machine—not a good idea.
Well, the first part is true. However, if you have a recent S/390 or any version of VM (virtual machine), you don't have to interrupt service at all to play with other operating systems on your production machine. If you're coming to this from the Linux/x86 world, you're probably aware of VMWare, which effectively splits your PC and lets you boot Windows NT in a virtual machine under Linux (and if you're not, you should be—it's an incredibly cool application). Well, IBM mainframes did it first.
The VM operating system (also called a “hypervisor”, like a supervisor on steroids) was designed from the start to do exactly that; in essence, under VM, each user gets his or her own copy of the machine. It looks exactly like a System/390, complete with attached peripherals, and the user owns (effectively, is root on) that virtual machine. Behind the scenes, of course, the peripherals are simulated and are managed by VM, and the hardware is designed with virtualization assistance features which VM exploits. This is analogous to the way VMWare provides “disk access” by simulating each disk as a file within the Linux file system. VM can also simply present an actual physical device, if appropriate to your needs.
This gets really interesting when you realize you can run VM in your own Virtual Machine. In fact, a very common use of VM is testing a new system second-level; that is, running underneath the instance of VM actually running on the bare metal. This allows you to make sure all your existing programs still work. Only when you have all the bugs worked out of the new system do you briefly shut down the machine and bring it back up with the new system running on the actual, rather than a virtual, machine. You can be confident it will work, since you've already extensively tested it.
There are other tricks you can do with VM. IBM's mainframe cash cow is OS/390, formerly MVS. You can run OS/390—or VSE, the third mainframe OS—in a virtual machine, although you cannot run guest operating systems under OS/390. Thus, VM lets you do the same test upgrade process with OS/390 as it does with VM itself. The virtual machines do not have to reflect the hardware configuration of the physical machine: virtual machines can be multiprocessor machines, even on a uniprocessor real system, or vice versa. Give each machine as much memory as you think it ought to have and its own set of printers, tapes, LAN adapters, whatever.
This is such a massively useful feature that IBM, in its more recent machines, has included a hardware feature which acts as a stripped-down VM in microcode; whether it is, in fact, a stripped-down older version of VM is a subject of debate. In any event, even without running VM, you get the benefit of LPARs (“Logical PARtitions”) which effectively allow you to partition your mainframe into a small number (usually 15 or fewer) of conceptual machines. IBM's mainframe competitors offer essentially the same functionality under different names, such as Amdahl's MDF.
How efficient is virtualization under VM? The architecture was designed with self-virtualization in mind, so it is much more efficient than VMWare. When a virtual machine under VM isn't doing anything, it consumes very little in the way of resources. Medium to large VM systems typically support about 5000 simultaneous logins (each, mind you, with its own virtual machine) without hiccuping.
David Boyes at Dimension Enterprises recently did a web server torture test—in an LPAR running a single VM instance, so his machine was running second-level on a medium-sized S/390, and each of his Linux machines was running third-level. His one goal was to see how many Linux boxes he could bring up, simultaneously serving requests. The results were somewhat astounding.
Are you sitting down? He ran out of resources at 41,400 simultaneous Linux machines—forty-one thousand four hundred. I'll get to what that's good for a little later; the notion of 41,400 web servers on a single physical box ought to give you an idea, though.
The upshot is, if you have access to a recent System/390, you can almost certainly spare the resources to play with Linux/390 without noticeably affecting your production system. If you don't have access to a mainframe, well, just keep reading. I have a little surprise coming up.
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- Linux Kernel 4.1 Released
- Secure Server Deployments in Hostile Territory
- July 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: Mobile
- Django Templates
- Comprehensive Identity Management and Audit for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- A Code Boot Camp for Underprivileged Kids
- Attack of the Drones
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development