Secure Logging Over a Network
Once all the steps are done, you must start the script, redirecting the standard error and output to /dev/null so ssh errors won't be displayed. Then, once it runs, restart syslogd so it will reread its configuration. If everything has been done correctly, you should now have your logs on the remote machine, and you should put the script in your startup file so it will be started at boot time. The program can run using normal user privileges; it doesn't need any special permission. Just make sure it can read from and write to the named pipe created for the communication with syslogd, and eventually, to the file selected for local error logging.
The second method is based on retrieving the data, a “pull”, instead of receiving it from the syslog. In this solution, a Perl script will run on the machine where we are going to store an additional copy of the logs, which will connect to the machine we want to monitor and obtain the logs from it. This task will be done just by using the tail command on the log file, so everything that comes to it will also be displayed on our side.
This script is quite similar to the first one, as you can see (in Listing 2). It has the usual procedure to connect to the remote host using ssh, the variables that hold the configuration and some local logging capabilities. Since the script is running on the machine that holds the additional copy of the logs, the logs for the script will also be stored on this machine. Once the connection is open, the script will continue reading from the ssh file handle and print everything on standard output, which will very likely be redirected to a file on startup. As we invoked it, ssh will execute tail on the log file, so each time something is added to the log file, it will be sent over. If an error occurs, then the script will try to reset the connection and log the error.
The configuration of ssh is very similar to the previous, but of course the roles are exchanged. In fact, here we will have to connect from the additional logging machine to the machine we want to log, so you will have to create the key on the additional machine and copy the public key to the authorized keys on the other machine. All other restrictions and hints should be used in the same way as before. Remember, you must now set the command to execute to the new one; that is, the tail defined in the Perl script by the $cmd variable.
In this example, you shouldn't have to change anything in the syslog, since you will be using tail on the already-existing log file. Anyway, we strongly suggest creating a new log file (using the usual syntax) including the most important things that need to be stored on the other machine. Another small problem arises from the fact that this consumes disk space. This is quite easily solved, since you can add a job to your crontab that deletes the file from time to time. Remember that syslog must be restarted if the log file has been deleted and recreated using touch, since it must exist for syslog to use it. If you have a recent version of textutils, then tail (with the --retry option) won't care about the file being deleted (use the rm command) and will create and open a new file. If you have an older version that doesn't support this option, you could just kill the tail command (this is easily done with some piping from ps to grep to kill) in the same cron as before, and the Perl script will then restart it from the remote side. Of course, we strongly suggest upgrading the textutils if possible.
Once configured, you should just start the script, redirecting the standard output (and error, too, but this isn't necessary) to the file that will keep your logs. The script on the logging machine doesn't need any special privileges. Of course, the file with the logs must always be readable by the user who is effectively running the tail command executed via ssh in the remote script. This means that if you're going to delete the file, you must set the correct ownership and modes each time in the cron job.
- March 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: System Administration
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- Localhost DNS Cache
- DNSMasq, the Pint-Sized Super Dæmon!
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- Days Between Dates: the Counting
- The Usability of GNOME
- You're the Boss with UBOS
- Multitenant Sites
- Linux for Astronomers