An Introduction to Using Linux as a Multipurpose Firewall
Currently, we have a reasonably secure PC quite incapable of passing the network traffic from the local LAN to the Internet. It is now time to set up and configure the rules that will make our firewall function. As mentioned earlier, these rules allow acceptable packets to pass through the firewall, while still offering various levels of security to unacceptable packets.
Download (with FTP) the ipchains package from http://www.rustcorp.com/ipchains/. Follow the installation instructions you obtained with the package to install it on your system.
Listing 4 shows the /etc/rc.d/rc.local file which is used to start any process not normally started as part of the distribution's installation. It is here where we set the rules for our firewall. Since our firewall is fairly straightforward, all we need to do is set up forwarding of masqueraded packets. To be able to use the full functionality of FTP, RealAudio, IRC and others, we need to support their port requirements as well. Many of these can be supported using the ipchains command above, but there are loadable modules that will take care of this, such as those shown in the sample rc.local file in Listing 4. See /lib/modules/2.2.9/ipv4 for a list of modules supported in your kernel. This directory should have been created earlier when you built the kernel.
That should do it. You are now ready to test your network firewall. Set one of your PCs inside your local LAN to one of the sample settings shown in Figure 1. For example, on Windows 95, you will need to enter a local LAN IP (such as 192.168.0.10), a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, a gateway IP of 192.168.0.1 and DNS entries given to you by the ISP. If the high-speed modem was originally connected to this PC, the DNS entries in the PC should already be set.
To test out your new firewall, try connecting to a web site with one of the PCs on your internal LAN. Try using RealAudio, FTP and other functions you regularly use. If none of these work, try using TELNET to get to the firewall PC. If you can do so, and you can ping a site on the Internet (or get to it via TELNET) from the firewall PC, check your rules in the /etc/rc.d/rc.local file, as you might not have turned on IP forwarding. If web access works, but (say) IRC does not, check to see if you loaded the IRC module correctly. Use the command lsmod to show which modules are loaded.
The configuration of LRP I will describe also uses the setup in Figure 1. It was set up on a 486 with 12MB of memory, a 1.44MB floppy drive, two Western Digital ISA network cards and no hard drive. For your system, install and configure the network cards in the same way as for the full firewall build earlier in this article. LRP version 2.9.4 is based on kernel version 2.0.36. This kernel is older than the 2.2.9 used above, and as a result, does not offer some features you may require if you want an advanced firewall. By the time you read this, there will likely be a new version available based on version 2.2.x of the kernel. I will describe setting version 2.9.4, and if you need some of the 2.2.x features, you have a foundation from which to work.
LRP uses a DOS-formatted floppy, either formatted as a standard 1.44MB disk or larger. (A utility called 2m can squeeze additional, usable storage space out of a floppy.) During boot time, a RAM disk is created, which is used as the live file system. Various portions of the system are created from compressed archive files (tar) that end in .lrp and are found on the floppy. In general, the floppy can run with write protect on. This means if someone were to find a way in to your firewall, any changes they made would disappear when the system is rebooted.
LRP is available in many forms. The hard way is to create a disk, make it bootable using a program called syslinux, and install the kernel and various LRP files required. However, at ftp://ftp.linuxrouter.org/linux-router/dists/2.9.4/, you will find in the download section a file called idiot-image_1440KB_2.9.4. The name might not be flattering, but it is the easiest way to start building an LRP disk. After you get the file via FTP, copy it to the floppy in one of two ways. In DOS, use the rawrite utility that came with your Linux distribution. In Linux, type:
cp idiot-image_1440KB_2.9.4 /dev/fd0
I have assumed /dev/fd0 is your 1.44MB floppy, but if it is not, change fd0 to the correct device name.
Now go to http://www.linuxrouter.org/modmaker/ and make a kernel that includes hardware support for our network cards and includes any modules required to support FTP, RealAudio, etc. This web site is a very nice way to generate a kernel. Click on 2.0.36final and tick off the modules you require. Unless you know you don't want support for one of the few masquerading modules in this list (like IRC), tick off all options that start with ip_masq such as ip_masq_irc and ip_masq_ftp. Then go down the list and find the drivers for your hardware. You may have to do some research as to the driver your NIC cards require. If you don't know which driver to pick, run make menuconfig on a working full Linux system and look at the devices under Network Device Support. When you find your card, look at the help and find out its module name. This module name is what you need to tick off on the module maker screen you are looking at. If you want to support serial port access to connect to your firewall using the serial port to do maintenance, select the serial module as well.
Once you have made these choices, click “Create modules.lrp file” and download a copy of modules.lrp and a copy of the kernel. Copy these files to your floppy using either the DOS copy command or mcopy in Linux. When you copy your downloaded kernel to floppy, name it linux. You will have to overwrite the existing modules.lrp and linux files.
You are now ready to boot the system. It should come up, but may or may not see one or both of your network cards, as we might still have to add some options to the modules setup as discussed below.
Log in as root. You will get a menu with various configuration options available. Select 1 for Network Settings and 1 again for Network Configuration (auto). Listing 5 shows a sample of the file /etc/network.conf. Edit the file on your screen to meet your needs, using mine as an example. I have placed as many details in the example as possible. Save the file by pressing CTRL-W and go back to the menu by pressing CTRL-C.
Next, edit the /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny files, using menu options 4 and 5. The same rules apply now as they did when the first firewall was built. Refer to the sidebar “Setting Services” for more details.
Quit back to the main configuration menu, then go on to option 2 for the system settings. If you wanted serial port access as mentioned earlier, you will need to edit the /etc/inittab file by selecting option 2 from the menu. You will find the serial port access commented out towards the end of the file. Uncomment the line to make it function.
The last step is configuring the modules to support the network cards, if they were not automatically detected when you booted up. Quit back to the main configuration menu and select 3 for Package Settings, 2 for modules and 1 for Kernel Modules. Find the line that shows the module for your system. Listing 6 is an example of the /etc/modules file. For my WD Ethernet cards, I use the configuration information to tell the WD driver exactly where to find each card.
One last thing to avoid possible problems: delete the /etc/resolv.conf file. If you have one lying around, it will be used even if you turn off DNS support in the configuration menus.
That's about it. Make sure you change the root password, and don't forget to back up your changes (currently, they are changed only on your RAM disk) to floppy via the backup option from the main menu. You should be able to boot up with a basic firewall, and it should function similarly to the one we built above. It is less configurable only because of the lack of a hard drive, but you can build on it. If you quit the menu program and get to the shell prompt, but want to get back into the menu, type lrcfg and press ENTER.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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