Dynamic Load-Balancing DNS: dlbDNS

An attempt to solve the problem of network traffic congestion by adding a dynamic load-balancing feature to the existing DNS.
dlbDNS Implementation

To get started, we downloaded BIND 8.1.2 from the Internet Software Consortium (www.isc.org/bind.html). Initially, time was spent installing and understanding DNS. DNS was installed on odie.cs.twsu.edu, a stand-alone Linux workstation.

Listing 1. named.hosts.wsu

During configuration, a new attribute called DNAME was added to distinguish the hosts taking part in dynamic load-balancing. Listing 1 is a snapshot from named.hosts.wsu, containing information on all hosts in a particular zone. In this listing, the set of hosts kira.cs.twsu.edu, sisko.cs.twsu.edu and q.cs.twsu.edu take part in dynamic load-balancing for http://www1.cs.twsu.edu/. The set of hosts kira.cs.twsu.edu, mccoy.cs.twsu.edu and emcity.cs.twsu.edu take part in dynamic load-balancing for http://www2.cs.twsu.edu/. The set of hosts kira.cs.twsu.edu, sisko.cs.twsu.edu and deanna.cs.twsu.edu take part in dynamic load-balancing for http://www3.cs.twsu.edu/. Hosts kira.cs.twsu.edu and sisko.cs.twsu.edu belong to multiple groups.

Server-Side Algorithm

Here is the algorithm we added to the pre-existing DNS feature. If the service requested is of type DNAME, do the following:

  1. Determine the set of participating servers for this service.

  2. Request ratings from all participating servers by establishing a concurrent connectionless (UDP) connection with each server.

  3. Using the ratings returned, determine the best server.

  4. Handle error conditions such as “server is too busy to return the rating within the time frame”, “the rating returned by the server gets lost on its way back to the dlbDNS”, “all servers have same rating” and “a server is down”.

Rating Demon Algorithm

A rating daemon runs on each server taking part in dynamic load balancing. Here is the algorithm:

  1. Receive request for rating from dlbDNS and respond by returning the host rating.

  2. Calculate the host rating once every minute rather than calculating it at the time of request, as quick response time is a most important feature.

  3. Ensure the host rating is updated every minute, independent of the dlbDNS request.

  4. Handle error conditions such as dlbDNS closing the UDP sockets without waiting for host response.

Figure 1. dlbDNS.gif

Model

Figure 1 shows the functionality of dlbDNS. The path traced by C indicates the process of updating the server rating by the rating daemons. The path traced by B indicates the communication between dlbDNS and the rating daemons to determine the best server. The path traced by A indicates the path traced by the user request. HOST 1 has a better rating than the other two hosts, so the user request gets directed to HOST 1.

dlbDNS Benefits

Implementing dlbDNS provides efficient utilization of system resources and ensures that facilities newly added to the existing network will be utilized. Since DNS is used, applications such as FTP and TELNET will also utilize dlbDNS.

dlbDNS Current Implementation

Uneven distribution of load across servers has been a major problem in the Computer Science department of Wichita State University. bugs.cs.twsu.edu, kira.cs.twsu.edu, roger.cs.twsu.edu and sisko.cs.twsu.edu are four Linux servers available for students in the department. These servers vary in potential and configuration.

dlbDNS was installed in December 1998 to effectively utilize the servers. lion.cs.twsu.edu, the actual DNS server, was made to direct DNAME requests toward odie.cs.twsu.edu where dlbDNS was installed. The lines added to the configuration file were:

;
bestlinux       IN      DNAME   bugs.cs.twsu.edu.
bestlinux       IN      DNAME   kira.cs.twsu.edu.
bestlinux       IN      DNAME   roger.cs.twsu.edu.
bestlinux       IN      DNAME   sisko.cs.twsu.edu.
;

Here, the bestlinux attribute was added to handle non-web requests from applications such as TELNET and FTP.

______________________

Comments

Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.

Developing servers with more

Anonymous's picture

Developing servers with more capacity and capability of handling this traffic is one way to solve the problem; another is to distribute client requests across multiple servers.

White Paper
Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI

Linux has become a key foundation for supporting today's rapidly growing IT environments. Linux is being used to deploy business applications and databases, trading on its reputation as a low-cost operating environment. For many IT organizations, Linux is a mainstay for deploying Web servers and has evolved from handling basic file, print, and utility workloads to running mission-critical applications and databases, physically, virtually, and in the cloud. As Linux grows in importance in terms of value to the business, managing Linux environments to high standards of service quality — availability, security, and performance — becomes an essential requirement for business success.

Learn More

Sponsored by Red Hat

White Paper
Private PaaS for the Agile Enterprise

If you already use virtualized infrastructure, you are well on your way to leveraging the power of the cloud. Virtualization offers the promise of limitless resources, but how do you manage that scalability when your DevOps team doesn’t scale? In today’s hypercompetitive markets, fast results can make a difference between leading the pack vs. obsolescence. Organizations need more benefits from cloud computing than just raw resources. They need agility, flexibility, convenience, ROI, and control.

Stackato private Platform-as-a-Service technology from ActiveState extends your private cloud infrastructure by creating a private PaaS to provide on-demand availability, flexibility, control, and ultimately, faster time-to-market for your enterprise.

Learn More

Sponsored by ActiveState