Linux in an Embedded Communications Gateway
Linux was immediately considered as an option for the project, due to positive experiences on an earlier project using Linux. However, the earlier project did data translations only in a batch environment in a normal office setup. While that earlier software was a major project, it was very different from a mission-essential “embedded” system. The gateway would be remote and unattended with no recourse to human intervention if something went wrong. We were certain Linux could handle the load, but prudence demanded the evaluation of alternatives. The gateway was essential to the entire project: without it, we'd have no performance metrics on how well the radio network of sensors performed. We needed solid reasons to justify our choice of Linux for the project.
As always, there were strong proponents for using a Microsoft OS. We rejected that approach immediately. Our experience with Windows NT indicated it still had some stability problems (despite being far more stable than other Windows platforms). While it is perhaps a useful desktop and/or server OS, we felt that NT was unsuitable for remote systems, particularly those without a display or a keyboard. We were also unhappy with the remote administration capabilities of NT. Perhaps most importantly, however, the system was to operate in an environment where it had to boot and run its software automatically if the watchdog timer ever reset the system. We had little faith in NT's ability to boot, correct disk problems and then run properly in this scenario. NT (and all other Microsoft Windows operating systems) were rejected for these reasons.
Various DOS-based solutions were also considered. We had serial port-handling libraries for DOS which we had used successfully in the past for solving the serial communications problems. Micro-Controller Operating System (muC/OS), a freeware real-time OS available for many different microprocessors, was evaluated as well. muC/OS had similarly good serial port-handling functions. Both were judged to be stable and reliable for an embedded application. However, one of the core system requirements was to allow log and data file extraction without disturbing the gateway operation. DOS would require some tricky programming to allow that option due to the uncertainty of some system calls, and we felt muC/OS would have trouble with it under high traffic loads. Portability was another issue—the protocol tunnel code had to be easily portable to UNIX. Even if we could have located an affordable, reliable, TCP/IP stack for either DOS or muC/OS, we had serious doubts about our ability to keep the source code portable. We removed both of those OS choices from the list.
We had a lot of choices among UNIX-like operating systems: QNX, Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris x86 or SCO. Our exposure to the latter two left us with serious concerns about their performance. None of the systems we had seen running those operating systems were particularly fast or responsive, even under fairly light loads. We also expected to port the gateway computer hardware platform to a single-board computer (SBC), and we wondered if either of those operating systems could run successfully on such hardware. We were certainly doubtful about the availability of RS-485 and watchdog timer drivers for those systems. We saw little value in choosing FreeBSD over Linux, since all our experience was with Linux.
So, our choices were reduced to QNX and Linux. QNX is a stable, multi-tasking, scalable, reliable, real-time OS that can easily run on SBCs. It has serial port/RS-485 and watchdog timer support and full networking support, including TCP/IP. QNX also enjoys a reputation for good technical support. In short, a good initial fit was found between QNX and the project's needs. However, there were also pitfalls. QNX did not support gcc (we heard a port was in progress). The only compiler available was the one provided by QNX, based on the Watcom C integrated development environment. While it's probably a good compiler, it meant learning a new tool, and that translated to time lost in an already short development cycle. We were already using and familiar with gcc and the other fine GNU tools. Given the short project “time to market”, any time lost from learning the new environment was considered detrimental.
That same philosophy extended to QNX in general. As a sophisticated real-time, micro-kernel OS, a learning curve is involved to use it well. We asked ourselves if we actually needed a real-time OS with the extra complexity that would come with it. We also wondered about portability issues. Having no experience with QNX, we were quite concerned that we would end up having to write the code twice: once for QNX and once for our server platform. At the very least, we were afraid we'd have to spend extra time adding conditional compiler directives to make the code work in both environments. In contrast, using Linux practically assured identical code. The licensing costs of QNX were substantial as well, in particular, when the full TCP/IP capabilities on every network node were added. In contrast, a single $50 Red Hat Linux CD-ROM represented a significant cost savings.
In the end, low cost, familiarity and availability of GNU tools tipped the scales in favor of Linux. It met all the project's key requirements at a tangible cost benefit which was hard to ignore. In summary, Linux provided:
A stable, robust, multi-user OS
Solid support for TCP/IP networking and serial communications
Ability to run on various single-board and host computers
Familiar, commonly used development tools with familiar system libraries—no time lost learning other tools and systems
Code that was completely reusable on other UNIX platforms to implement the servers for the system
As an added advantage, if we ever went into production and began building hundreds or thousands of gateways, Linux would save us a significant amount of money because there are no license fees to use it.
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