Introduction to Named Pipes
Bash uses named pipes in a really neat way. Recall that when you enclose a command in parenthesis, the command is actually run in a “subshell”; that is, the shell clones itself and the clone interprets the command(s) within the parenthesis. Since the outer shell is running only a single “command”, the output of a complete set of commands can be redirected as a unit. For example, the command:
(ls -l; ls -l) >ls.out
writes two copies of the current directory listing to the file ls.out.
Command substitution occurs when you put a < or > in front of the left parenthesis. For instance, typing the command:
cat <(ls -l)
results in the command ls -l executing in a subshell as usual, but redirects the output to a temporary named pipe, which bash creates, names and later deletes. Therefore, cat has a valid file name to read from, and we see the output of ls -l, taking one more step than usual to do so. Similarly, giving >(commands) results in Bash naming a temporary pipe, which the commands inside the parenthesis read for input.
If you want to see whether two directories contain the same file names, run the single command:
cmp <(ls /dir1) <(ls /dir2)
The compare program cmp will see the names of two files which it will read and compare.
Command substitution also makes the tee command (used to view and save the output of a command) much more useful in that you can cause a single stream of input to be read by multiple readers without resorting to temporary files—bash does all the work for you. The command:
ls | tee >(grep foo | wc >foo.count) \ >(grep bar | wc >bar.count) \ | grep baz | wc >baz.count
counts the number of occurrences of foo, bar and baz in the output of ls and writes this information to three separate files. Command substitutions can even be nested:
cat <(cat <(cat <(ls -l))))works as a very roundabout way to list the current directory.
As you can see, while the unnamed pipes allow simple commands to be strung together, named pipes, with a little help from bash, allow whole trees of pipes to be created. The possibilities are limited only by your imagination.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
Join Linux Journal's Mike Diehl and Pat Cameron of Help Systems.
Free to Linux Journal readers.View Now!
|The Firebird Project's Firebird Relational Database||Jul 29, 2016|
|Stunnel Security for Oracle||Jul 28, 2016|
|SUSE LLC's SUSE Manager||Jul 21, 2016|
|My +1 Sword of Productivity||Jul 20, 2016|
|Non-Linux FOSS: Caffeine!||Jul 19, 2016|
|Murat Yener and Onur Dundar's Expert Android Studio (Wrox)||Jul 18, 2016|
- The Firebird Project's Firebird Relational Database
- Stunnel Security for Oracle
- My +1 Sword of Productivity
- Non-Linux FOSS: Caffeine!
- SUSE LLC's SUSE Manager
- Managing Linux Using Puppet
- Murat Yener and Onur Dundar's Expert Android Studio (Wrox)
- Parsing an RSS News Feed with a Bash Script
- Google's SwiftShader Released
- Doing for User Space What We Did for Kernel Space
With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide