Security Monitoring and Enforcement with Cfengine 3

Cfengine is well known as a powerful system configuration management tool, but did you know you also can use it to secure your systems?
Managing sshd.conf

The next example is Diego Zamboni's Cfengine bundle for editing the sshd configuration file and restarting sshd if any changes were made. It has two parts (to abstract the under-the-hood details). In the first part, the sysadmin edits the sshd array to set variables corresponding to the sshd configuration parameters. For example, to mandate Protocol 2 of SSH, set:

"sshd[Protocol]" string => "2";

If the parameter is commented out, Cfengine uncomments it and sets it to the desired value. If the parameter is absent, Cfengine adds it and sets it to the desired value. Additionally, if any changes were made to sshd_config, sshd restarts to activate the change.

For an example of changes made, run diff of sshd_config before and after Cfengine edited it to set Protocol, X11Forwarding and UseDNS:

# diff /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/
< #Protocol 2,1
> Protocol 2
< #X11Forwarding no
< X11Forwarding no
> X11Forwarding yes
> X11Forwarding yes
< #UseDNS yes
> UseDNS no

You may notice X11Forwarding is there twice after the edit, because it was in the file twice before the edit, once commented and once uncommented. But, this does not break things. Having X11Forwarding yes is valid syntax, and the /usr/sbin/sshd -t syntax checker does not complain.

You also may notice that cf-agent saved a copy of the original file, just in case.

Learning More

Download the source and follow the Recommended Reading on the Quick Start Guide site. Also, please visit us on the help-cfengine mailing list to share your ideas on automating security with Cfengine.

Aleksey Tsalolikhin has been a UNIX systems administrator for 13 years, including seven at EarthLink. Wrangling EarthLink's server farms by hand, he developed an abiding interest in automating server configuration management. Aleksey taught “Introduction to Automating System Administration with Cfengine 3” at Ohio Linux Fest 2010 and Southern California Linux Expo 2011 as an instructor from the League of Professional System Administrators.


Aleksey Tsalolikhin has been a UNIX/Linux system administrator for 14 years.

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