Sysadmin 101: Leveling Up

This is the fourth in a series of articles on systems administrator fundamentals. These days, DevOps has made even the job title "systems administrator" seems a bit archaic like the "systems analyst" title it replaced. These DevOps positions are rather different from sysadmin jobs in the past with a much larger emphasis on software development far beyond basic shell scripting and as a result often are filled with people with software development backgrounds without much prior sysadmin experience.

In the past, a sysadmin would enter the role at a junior level and be mentored by a senior sysadmin on the team, but in many cases these days, companies go quite a while with cloud outsourcing before their first DevOps hire. As a result, the DevOps engineer might be thrust into the role at a junior level with no mentor around apart from search engines and Stack Overflow posts.

In the first article in this series, I explained how to approach alerting and on-call rotations as a sysadmin. In the second article, I discussed how to automate yourself out of a job. In the third, I covered why and how you should use tickets. In this article, I describe the overall sysadmin career path and what I consider the attributes that might make you a "senior sysadmin" instead of a "sysadmin" or "junior sysadmin", along with some tips on how to level up.

Keep in mind that titles are pretty fluid and loose things, and that they mean different things to different people. Also, it will take different people different amounts of time to "level up" depending on their innate sysadmin skills, their work ethic and the opportunities they get to gain more experience. That said, be suspicious of anyone who leveled up to a senior level in any field in only a year or two—it takes time in a career to make the kinds of mistakes and learn the kinds of lessons you need to learn before you can move up to the next level.

Junior Systems Administrator

Junior sysadmins are early on in their sysadmin training. It might be their first sysadmin job where they are learning everything from scratch, or they might have a few years of experience under their belts. Either way, a few attributes are common among junior sysadmins:

  • Tasks will require help from other members of the team to complete.

  • They will rely heavily on documentation and may not understand what individual tasks do.

  • It may take weeks or even months to be productive at a new job.

  • Most of their time will be spent with daily tickets.

  • Eventually they might take on a project, but will need quite a bit of help to complete it.

One of the first attributes that defines junior sysadmins is the amount of outside help they will need to do their jobs. Generally speaking, they will need help and direction to perform day-to-day tasks, especially at first. If you document your routine tasks (and you should!), you will find that junior sysadmins will dutifully follow your procedures step by step, but they may not understand exactly what those steps do. If a task deviates from the norm, or if for some reason a step fails, they will escalate up to a more senior member of the team for help—this is a good thing, because this mentoring is one of the main ways that junior sysadmins build their experience besides making mistakes and fixing them.

It might take sysadmins at this level a few weeks or even months at a new organization until they are productive and can start doing daily tasks independently without help. These are great opportunities for a team to audit documentation and for junior members of the team to flag gaps in documentation or places where they are out of date. If you have junior team members add documentation themselves, just make sure that a more senior team member goes over it to make sure it's correct and complete.

A sysadmin's task list is usually divided into two main categories: day-to-day tasks and projects. Junior sysadmins often end up being assigned more of the day-to-day "grunt work", not as a punishment, but just because projects usually require more experience—experience they will get as they master daily tickets.

That said, at some point, it will be important for junior sysadmins to take on their first project. Ideally, this will be a project without a strict deadline, so they can take the time they need to research and get it right. At this level, a more senior team member will need to devote a fair amount of time to act as a mentor and help direct the planning and research for the project and answer any questions.

Both daily tasks and projects are important for junior sysadmins, as it's the mastery of daily tasks and the successful completion of a couple projects that will help prepare junior sysadmins to level up. Each task they master will add a certain level of confidence and proficiency in routine sysadmin tasks, and projects will help develop their research skills and the ability to complete tasks that fall outside a playbook.

Mid-Level Systems Administrator

It can be difficult to draw the exact line where a sysadmin levels up past the junior level. There isn't an exact number of years' experience needed; instead, it has more to do with sysadmins' competency with their craft and their overall confidence and independence. Here are a few attributes that are common to mid-level sysadmins:

  • They generally perform day-to-day tasks independently.

  • They understand some of the technology behind their routine tasks and don't just parrot commands they see in documentation.

  • It takes a few weeks up to a month to be productive at a new job.

  • Their time is pretty equally balanced between daily tickets and longer-term projects.

  • They are able to come up with new approaches and improvements to existing tasks.

  • They can complete simple projects independently and more complex projects with some help from more senior team members.

The main difference between junior sysadmins and mid-level sysadmins has to do with their independence. As sysadmins become more comfortable with servers in general, and the processes within an organization specifically, they start to be able to perform typical tasks by themselves. Mid-level sysadmins should be able to handle all of the normal tasks that are thrown at them without outside help. It's only when they get an odd "curve ball", such as a one-off task that hasn't been done before or some unique emergency, that mid-level sysadmins may need to reach out to the more senior members of the team for some guidance. As with junior sysadmins, this type of help is very important, and it would be a mistake for mid-level sysadmins not to ask for help with odd requests just to try to be "more senior". Asking questions and getting advice from more experienced sysadmins will help them level up. If they try to go it completely alone, no matter what, it will take much longer.

Mid-level sysadmins also take on more projects than their junior counterparts, and they are able to complete simple projects independently. Junior sysadmins might be able to maintain an existing system, but mid-level sysadmins actually might be able to set it up from scratch. They also can start tackling larger, more complicated projects that may require them to learn new technologies and come up with some approaches independently, although in those cases, they'll still sometimes need to reach out to more experienced team members to make sure they are on the right track.

As sysadmins master all of the day-to-day tasks, they also naturally will start to come up with improvements and efficiencies for those tasks, and they may make some suggestions to the team along those lines. These improvements may become projects for them in their own right. They also should be able to provide some level of mentorship and training for junior members on the team, at least with daily tasks.

One of the most important things for mid-level sysadmins to do if they want to level up is to take on projects and help triage emergencies. Projects and emergencies often provide opportunities to think outside established playbooks. It's this kind of critical thinking, research and problem-solving that builds the experience that's so important for sysadmins. They will start to notice some common patterns the more emergencies and projects they work through, and that realization builds a certain level of confidence and deeper understanding that is vital for moving to the next level.

Senior Systems Administrator

Although some may consider people to be senior sysadmins based on a certain number of years' experience, to me, what makes someone a senior sysadmin versus a mid-level sysadmin isn't years of experience or number of places worked at, it's more a particular state of mind that one can get to via many different means. Many people get the title before they get the state of mind, and often it takes getting the title (or some of the responsibilities associated with it) to make a person level up.

The main difference between senior sysadmins and mid-level sysadmins is that one day, something clicks in senior sysadmins' minds when they realize that basically every emergency they've responded to and every project they've worked on to that point all have a common trait: given enough time and effort, they can track down the cause of just about any problem and complete just about any sysadmin task. This is a matter of true confidence, not false bravado, and it's this kind of real independence that marks senior sysadmins.

Early on in your career, certain tasks or projects just seem over your head, and you absolutely need help to complete them. Later on, you master daily tasks, but weird emergencies or complex projects still may intimidate you. Senior sysadmins have completed so many projects and responded to so many emergencies, that they eventually build the confidence such that they aren't intimidated by the next project, the next emergency or the prospect of being responsible for important mission-critical infrastructure. Like mid-level sysadmins might approach their daily tickets, senior sysadmins approach any task that comes their way.

Here are some attributes common to senior sysadmins:

  • They can perform both daily tasks and complex projects independently.

  • They understand the fundamentals behind the technologies they use and can distill complex tasks down into simple playbooks everyone on the team can follow.

  • They can be productive at a new job within a week or two.

  • Their time is spent more on large projects and odd requests that fall outside the norm.

  • They mentor other team members and have a good sense of best practices.

  • They come up with new projects and improvements and can suggest appropriate designs to solve new problems.

  • They understand their own fallibility and develop procedures to protect themselves from their own mistakes.

Again, it's the confidence and independence of senior sysadmins that separates them from mid-level sysadmins. That's not to say that senior sysadmins never ask for help. Along with the confidence of being able to tackle any sysadmin task is the humility that comes with a career full of mistakes. In fact, part of their experience will have taught them the wisdom of asking other people on the team for feedback to make sure they haven't missed anything. Often senior sysadmins will come up with multiple ways to tackle a problem, each with pros and cons, and use the rest of the team as a sounding board to help choose which approach would work best in a specific case.

Senior sysadmins' experiences exposes them to many different technologies, systems and architectures through the years. This means they start to notice which approaches work, which don't, and which work at first but cause problems in the long run. In particular, they might track some project they completed themselves through its lifetime and note how their initial solutions worked to a particular point and then either failed as it scaled, or needed to change with the advent of some new technology. The more this happens, the more senior sysadmins start to develop a natural sense of best practices and what I call the "sysadmin sense", which, like Spiderman's "spidey sense", starts to warn them when they see something that is going to result in a problem down the road, like a backup system that's never been tested or a system that has a single point of failure. It's in developing this expertise that they are able to level up to the last major level outside management.

Systems Architect

Although every organization is a bit different, there are two main career paths senior sysadmins might choose from as they gain experience. The most common path is in management. Senior sysadmins over time end up spending more time mentoring their team and often are promoted to team leads and from there into full managers over their teams. The other path continues on with the "individual-contributor" role where they may or may not act as team leads, but they don't have any direct reports and don't spend time doing employee evaluations or things of that sort. Of course, there also are paths that blend those two extremes. In this last section, I describe one of the last levels for an individual-contributor sysadmin to move to: systems architect.

In many organizations, the line between a systems architect and a senior sysadmin can be blurry. Equally blurry are the qualifications that may make someone a systems architect. That said, generally speaking, systems architects have spent a number of years as senior sysadmins. During the course of their careers, they have participated in a large number of projects, both with a team and independently, and they have started to see what works and what doesn't. It's this accumulation of experience with a wide variety of technologies and project designs that starts to build this inherent sense of best practices that makes someone a systems architect.

The following are some attributes common to systems architects:

  • They are familiar with many different technologies that solve a particular problem along with their pros and cons.

  • When solving a problem, they come up with multiple approaches and can explain and defend their preferred approach.

  • They understand the limitations to a solution and where it will fail as it scales.

  • They can distill a general problem down to individual tasks as part of a larger project that can be divided among a team.

  • They can evaluate new technologies based on their relative merits and not be distracted by hype or popularity.

Systems architects aren't necessarily married to a particular approach, although they may have a set of approaches for tackling certain problems based on what's worked for them in the past. Because they have operated at a senior level for some time, they have developed a deeper understanding of what defines a good architecture versus a bad one and how to choose one technology over the other. Technology moves in trends, and those trends tend to repeat themselves over a long enough timeline. Systems architects have been around long enough that they have seen at least one of those trend cycles for some hyped technology, and they probably have been burned at some point in the past by adopting an immature technology too quickly just because it was popular. Whereas junior administrators are more likely to get caught up in the hype behind a particular new technology and want to use it everywhere, systems architects are more likely to cut through the hype and, for any new technology, be able to identify where it would be useful and where it wouldn't.


I hope this description of levels in systems administration has been helpful as you plan your own career. When it comes to gaining experience, nothing quite beats making your own mistakes and having to recover from them yourself. At the same time, it sure is a lot easier to invite battle-hardened senior sysadmins to beers and learn from their war stories. I hope this series in Sysadmin 101 fundamentals has been helpful for those of you new to the sysadmin trenches, and also I hope it helps save you from having to learn from your own mistakes as you move forward in your career.

Kyle Rankin is a Tech Editor and columnist at Linux Journal and the Chief Security Officer at Purism. He is the author of Linux Hardening in Hostile Networks, DevOps Troubleshooting, The Official Ubuntu Server Book, Knoppix Hacks, Knoppix Pocket Reference, Linux Multimedia Hacks and Ubuntu Hacks, and also a contributor to a number of other O'Reilly books. Rankin speaks frequently on security and open-source software including at BsidesLV, O'Reilly Security Conference, OSCON, SCALE, CactusCon, Linux World Expo and Penguicon. You can follow him at @kylerankin.

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