Simple Server Hardening, Part II
In my last article, I talked about the classic, complicated approach to server hardening you typically will find in many hardening documents and countered it with some specific, simple hardening steps that are much more effective and take a only few minutes. While discussing how best to harden SSH and sudo can be useful, in a real infrastructure, you also have any number of other services you rely on and also want to harden.
So instead of choosing specific databases, application servers or web servers, in this follow-up article, I'm going to extend the topic of simple hardening past specific services and talk about more general approaches to hardening that you can apply to software you already have running as well as to your infrastructure as a whole. I start with some general security best practices, then talk about some things to avoid and finally finish up with looking at some areas where sysadmin and security best practices combine.
General Best Practices
I won't dwell too long on general security best practices, because I've discussed them in other articles in the past, and you likely have heard of them before. That said, it's still worth mentioning a few things as these are the principles you should apply when you evaluate what practices to put in place and which to avoid. As someone who likes running a tight ship when it comes to systems administration, it's nice that security best practices often correspond with general best practices. In both cases, you generally can't cut corners, and shortcuts have a tendency to bite you later on.
The first security best practice worth covering is the principle of least privilege. This principle states that people should have the minimum level of privileges to a system that they need and no more than that. So for instance, if you don't need to grant all engineers in your organization sudo root privileges on your servers, you shouldn't. Instead, just give them privileges to perform the tasks they need. If some classes of engineers don't really need accounts at all, it's better not to create accounts for them. Some environments are even able to get by without any developer accounts in production.
The simpler a system, the easier it should be to secure. Complexity not only makes troubleshooting more difficult, it also makes security difficult as you try to think through all of the different attack scenarios and ways to prevent them. Along with that simplicity, you should add layers of defense and not rely on any individual security measure. For instance, traditionally organizations would harden a network by adding a firewall in front of everything and call it a day. These days, security experts advise that the internal network also should be treated as a threat. Sometimes attackers can bypass a security measure due to a security bug, so if you have layers of defense, they may get past one security measure but then have to deal with another.
On the subject of security bugs, keeping the software on your systems patched for security bugs is now more important than ever. The time between a security bug's discovery and being exploited actively on the internet keeps shrinking, so if you don't already have a system in place that makes upgrading software throughout your environment quick and easy, you should invest in it.
Finally, you should encrypt as much as possible. Encrypt data at rest via encrypted filesystems. Encrypt network traffic between systems. And when possible, encrypt secrets as they are stored on disk.
Kyle Rankin is VP of engineering operations at Final, Inc., the author of many books including Linux Hardening in Hostile Networks, DevOps Troubleshooting and The Official Ubuntu Server Book, and a columnist for Linux Journal. Follow him @kylerankin
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