Zenoss and the Art of Network Monitoring
At this point, we can use the dashboard to monitor the managed devices, but we will be notified only if we visit the site. It would be much more helpful if we could receive alerts via e-mail. To set up e-mail alerting, we need to create a separate user account, as alerts do not work under the admin account. Click on the Setting link under the Management navigation section. Using the drop-down arrow on the menu, select Add User. Enter a user name and e-mail address when prompted. Click on the new user in the list to edit its properties. Enter a password for the new account, and assign a role of Manager. Click Save at the bottom of the page. Log out of Zenoss, and log back in with the new account. Bring the settings page back up, and enter your SMTP server information. After setting up SMTP, we need to create an Alerting Rule for our new user. Click on the Users tab, and click on the account just created in the list. From the resulting page, click on the Edit tab and enter the e-mail address to which you want alerts sent. Now, go to the Alerting Rules tab and create a new rule using the drop-down arrow. On the edit tab of the new Alerting Rule, change the Action to email, Enabled to True, and change the Severity formula to >= Warning (Figure 4). Click Save.
The above rule sends alerts when any Production server experiences an event rated Warning or higher (Figure 5). Using a filter, you can create any number of rules and have them apply only to specific devices or groups of devices. If you want to limit your alerts by time to working hours, for example, use the Schedule tab on the Alerting Rule to define a window. If no schedule is specified (the default), the rule runs all the time. In our rule, only one user will be notified. You also can create groups of users from the Settings page, so that multiple people are alerted, or you could use a group e-mail address in your user properties.
We can expand our view of the test systems by adding a process and a service for Zenoss to monitor. When we refer to a process in Zenoss, we mean an active program, usually a dæmon, running on a managed device. Zenoss uses regular expressions to monitor processes.
To monitor Postfix on the mail server, first, let's define it as a process. Navigate to the Processes page under the Classes section of the navigation menu. Use the drop-down arrow next to OS Processes, and click Add Process. Enter Postfix as the process ID. When you return to the previous page, click on the link to the new process. On the edit tab of the process, enter master in the Regex field. Click Save before navigating away. Go to the zProperties tab of the process, and make sure the zMonitor field is set to True. Click Save again. Navigate back to the mail server from the dashboard, and on the OS tab, use the topmost menu's drop-down arrow to select Add→Add OSProcess. After the process has been added, we will be alerted if the Postfix process degrades or fails. While still on the OS tab of the server, place a check mark next to the new Postifx process, and from the OS Processes drop-down menu, select Lock OSProcess. On the next set of options, select Lock from deletion. This protects the process from being overwritten if Zenoss remodels the server.
Services in Zenoss are defined by active network ports instead of running dæmons. There are a plethora of services built in to the software, and you can define your own if you want to. The built-in services are broken down into two categories: IPServices and WinServices. IPservices use any port from 1-65535 and include common network apps/protocols, such as SMTP (Port 25), DNS (53) and HTTP (80). WinServices are intended for specific use with Windows servers (Figure 6).
Adding a service is much simpler than adding a process, because there are so many predefined in Zenoss. To monitor the HTTP service on our Web server, navigate to the server from the dashboard. Use the main menu's drop-down arrow on the server's OS tab arrow, and select Add→Add IPService. Type HTTP in the Service Class Field. Notice that the field begins to prefill with matches as you type the letters. Select TCP as the protocol, and click OK. Click Save on the resulting page. As with the OSProcess procedure, return to the OS tab of the server and lock the new IPService. Zenoss is now monitoring HTTP availability on the server (Figure 7).
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