Paranoid Penguin - Customizing Linux Live CDs, Part I

Make your desktop completely portable with a custom live CD.

So, now you've made room for your custom toolkit. If you want to use your live CD for anonymous Web surfing, you may want to install Tor and Privoxy. First, you need to update your custom root filesystem's package database to synchronize it with the sources.list file you copied over in line 08:

15-# apt-get update

Now, you can use apt-get install just as you would on any other live system to install your custom packages:

16-# apt-get install tor privoxy

As a professional paranoiac, I'd be remiss if I didn't point out that both of these packages are from Ubuntu's universe repository, and as such, they aren't provided with the same level of support as packages in the main and restricted repositories, although the Ubuntu MOTO Security Team does its best to keep up with security patches. This is a trade-off you'll probably find yourself making frequently, however. As I pointed out in my column in the March 2008 issue, many of Ubuntu's most useful security utilities are available only in the universe and metaverse repositories.

After you've installed your custom applications, make sure your entire system is fully patched. As with any other Ubuntu (or other Debian-based) system, you can use apt-get dist-upgrade. Because this will result in quite a bit of updates being downloaded and installed, and because space is at a premium on our ISO image, immediately follow the upgrade with a clean:

17-# apt-get dist-upgrade

18-# apt-get clean

Come to think of it, this one step—upgrading the live CD's packages—may be the only security-related reason you need to customize your live CD. Applying security patches is that important!

There's just one more thing to do before packing up your new ISO: custom configuration. You may want to edit the hosts or resolv.conf files you copied over before (or, after exiting the chroot jail, you simply may want to copy over them with the originals from ./isonew/squashfs/etc). You may want to preconfigure Tor by editing /etc/tor/torrc and /etc/tor/tor-socks.conf, and Privoxy via the files in /etc/privoxy.

As with removing and installing packages, this process is the same as on any other system: fire up your (non-GUI) text editor of choice (nano, vi and ed are all present in the standard Ubuntu ISO), and edit anything that needs editing.

Are you done customizing? If so, you can take your Red Pill and exit the Matrix—I mean, the chroot jail. On your way out, empty the /tmp directory, and unmount the chrooted /proc and /sys filesystems:

19-# rm -rf /tmp/*

20-# umount /proc/

21-# umount /sys/

22-# exit

You're back in reality (at least, back in your previous working directory on the underlying system). Before you pack up your ISO, you'll have to build a new manifest file (a list of all packages in the new live CD root filesystem), recompress the customized root filesystem into a squashfs file and regenerate the md5sum of your live CD files.

First, to rebuild your manifest file:

23-$ chmod +w ./isonew/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest

24-$ sudo chroot ./isonew/custom dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Package}
↪${Version}\n' > ./isonew/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest

25-$ sudo cp ./isonew/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest
↪./isonew/cd/casper/filesystem.manifest-desktop

In line 23, you made the old manifest file writeable, so you could copy over it. In line 24, you temporarily popped back into the root filesystem chroot jail to generate the package list with dpkg-query. And in line 25, you copied the new manifest into an identical file called filesystem.manifest-desktop.

Now you can resquash your root filesystem:

26-$ sudo mksquashfs ./isonew/custom
↪./isonew/cd/casper/filesystem.squashfs

If you like, you can edit the DISKNAME parameter in the file ./isonew/README.diskdefines. Regardless, next you should regenerate your live CD's md5sum, so you can detect tampering later on:

27-$ sudo rm ./isonew/cd/md5sum.txt

28-$ sudo -s

29-# cd ./isonew/cd

30-# find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 md5sum > md5sum.txt

31-# exit

And, you've reached the final step. Now you can write your finished ISO image file:

32-$ cd ./isonew/cd

33-$ sudo mkisofs -r -V "Ubuntu-Live-PrivateSurf" -b
↪isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -cache-inodes -J -l
↪-no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o
↪~/Ubuntu-Live-7.10-PrivateSurf.iso .

Your home directory now contains a new customized live CD ISO file, named Ubuntu-Live-7.10-PrivateSurf.iso. You can boot it directly from hard disk using VMware, QEMU or some other virtualization engine to test it. Or, of course, simply burn it to CD using your CD-writing utility of choice.

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From CD ISO to DVD ISO?

kalahari875's picture

If adding too much software to fit on a CD ISO image, is this approach suitable to simply burning the resulting image on a DVD instead?

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