OOo Off-the-Wall: Back to School with Bibliographies
Twenty years ago, when the Chicago style dominated, most text citations were in the form of footnotes or endnotes. More recently, footnotes and endnotes have tended to be reserved for asides or for additions to the original text. In recent years, only the Chicago style continues to use footnotes or endnotes for citations in the text.
Increasingly, all three styles tend to use parenthetical or in-line citations within the text. Parenthetical citation gives information in brackets, while in-line citations give the information as part of the sentence structure. Both give just enough information that readers can locate full information in the bibliography about the source being mentioned. Furthermore, they give the information with minimal disruption to the text, and they can be skipped easily if a reader is not interested in them. At times, an even more informal style is used, in which numbers refer to the order in which items appear in the bibliography.
The following table gives the more common formats for text citations in each style. The information given in each format shows what is important to the users of each style. For example, dealing in literature, users of the MLA style want exact page references. By contrast, in APA style, the timeliness of the information is an important factor in judging it, so the year is more important.
|Citation Style||Common Formats|
|Informal||Numbers refer to the order or entries in the bibliography.|
|Chicago||(Author, Year, Page)|
|In a footnote or endnote, using the same structure as in the bibliography, except that the writer's name is given first name first.|
|(Author, Page Number)|
|(Article, Page Number)|
|In-line (all)||Macdonald (2003) proves ...|
|In a recent study, Macdonald (2003) ...|
|In 2003, Macdonald ...|
In Writer, a citation is called a bibliography entry by analogy to the markers used for other types of indexes and tables. However, this choice can be misleading. The process of adding a citation differs from adding any other type of entry marker in at least three ways:
The citation uses the text of the Short Name, also called the identifier, store in the bibliographic record, rather than existing independently, like an index marker.
The bibliography entry is formatted from the Index/Table tab of the Insert Index/Table screen.
Like other entry markers, a bibliography marker may be used to generate the bibliography. However, you also can create a bibliography marker from the bibliography database.
To add a citation or bibliography entry:
1. Place the mouse cursor where you want the citation.
In the Chicago style, citations generally go into foot notes or end notes. In both the MLA and APA styles, citations generally go at the end of a sentence or at least at a natural pause, such as a comma. However, depending on the citation style and who you are writing for, an internal citation is sometimes acceptable. For example, instead of adding (Smith, 1999) at the end of the sentence, you may prefer to write something like, "According to Smith . . ." with Smith as your citation.
2. Select Insert > Indexes and Tables > Bibliography Entry.
The Insert Bibliography Entry screen opens.
3. Select the entry source:
From bibliography database: the Short Name (identifier) for a record in the bibliography database is used.
From document content: a bibliography record is created and stored within the document rather than in the database.
Your choice depends on your work method. Those who keep careful lists of their sources probably will find the database to be more convenient. By contrast, those who are less organized or wish to avoid sorting through sources related to other documents may prefer to add to entries to the document.
4. If you select From bibliography database, select the Short Name from the drop-down list at the bottom of the screen. Then, select the Insert button to add the citation.
5. If you select From document content, select the New button.
The Define Bibliography Entry screen opens. You do not need to fill in all of the available screens. Instead, enter only the definitions you require for the form of citation you are using.
From Writer's viewpoint, you need to enter:
The Short Name: the text for the bibliographic entry.
The Type: the type of source you are citing.
For most citation formats, you also need the Author, Book Title or Title for an article or shorter work and Year of publication. In some cases, you also may want to use one of the User-Defined fields for the city.
6. Select the OK button when you are finished. Then, use the Insert button to add the bibliography entry to the document.
Note: Formatting for a bibliography entry is set from the Index/Table tab of the Insert Index/Table screen. Until you have added the bibliography, the entry many not be formatted in the way you prefer.
-- Bruce Byfield (nanday)
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