Linux KVM as a Learning Tool
Processors compatible with the x86 architecture can support different operating modes. Two of them are 16-bit real-address mode. The most frequently used, these days at least, is 32-bit protected mode. The processor starts in real-address mode after a power-up or reset (so platform initialization code has to be written for this mode) and jumps to the instruction at address 0xFFFF0. Usually, the BIOS's initialization routine is located here. The first instruction of our simple kernel will be located there to take control of the platform as soon as it boots. Although with KVM it is possible to start a virtual machine directly in protected mode, our launcher won't do that in order to learn how to manipulate a PC just after power-up.
The 16-bit real-address mode is a legacy mode inherited from the Intel 8086 processor, which is able to address up to 1Mb of memory. 1Mb is 220 bytes, so addresses require 20 bits. Given that the 8086's registers are only 16-bit wide, addresses are built by pairing two values. The first value is used as a selector (stored in a segment register), and the second value is used as an offset. With these, physical addresses are computed by the formula: 16 * selector + offset.
For example, the selector:offset 0xDEAD:0xBEEF represents the physical address 0xEA9BF. To multiply the selector (0xDEAD) by 16, simply add a 0 to the right side of the number (0xDEAD0). The addition then becomes the following:
0xDEAD0 + 0x0BEEF ------- 0xEA9BF
Note that given a fixed value for the selector, it is possible to reference only 64Kb of memory (the offset's allowed range). Programs bigger than 64Kb must use multi-segment code. We will keep our kernel simple and make it fit into a single 64Kb segment. Our launcher will put the kernel image in the last segment (where the 0xFFFF0 entry point resides). The last segment starts at 0xF0000 as shown by the following calculation:
Start of the last segment = (Maximum 8086 Memory) - (Segment Size) = 1MB - 64KB = 0x100000 - 0x10000 = 0xF0000
A memory map of this is shown in Figure 2.
We now can write a kernel in assembler with its first instruction at offset 0xFFFF0. Note that unlike many processors, the x86 processor does not have a reset “vector”. It does not use the value at 0xFFFF0 as the location of the reset code; rather, it begins executing the code that is at 0xFFFF0. Therefore, the “normal” code to place at 0xFFFF0 is a jump to the actual reset code.
Our first kernel is shown in Listing 4. It merely sets the AX register to 0 and then loops forever.
Listing 4. kernel1.S
.code16 // Generate 16-bit code start: // Kernel's main routine xor %ax, %ax 1: jmp 1b // Loop forever . = 0xfff0 // Entry point ljmp $0xf000, $start
In the second to the last line, the dot (.) refers to the current location counter. Therefore, when we write:
. = 0xfff0
we instruct the assembler to set the current location to address 0xFFF0. In real-mode, address 0xFFF0 is relative to the current segment. Where does the segment offset get specified? It comes from the call to load_file() in Listing 3. It loads the kernel at offset 0xF0000. This, combined with the assembler offset, will place the ljmp at address 0xFFFF0, as required.
The kernel binary should be a raw 64Kb 16-bit real-address mode image, and not a normal ELF binary (the standard binary format used by Linux). To do this, we need a special linker script. We use GNU ld for this, of course, which accepts script files to provide explicit control over the linking process.
A linker is a program that combines input binary files into a single output file. Each file is expected to have, among other things, a list of sections, sometimes with an associated block of data. The linker's function is to map input sections into output sections. GNU ld uses, by default, a linker script specific for the host platform, which you can view by using the -verbose flag:
$ gcc -Wl,-verbose hello-world.c
To build our kernel, we don't use the default script but instead the simple script kernel16.lds, shown in Listing 5.
Fast/Flexible Linux OS Recovery
On Demand Now
In this live one-hour webinar, learn how to enhance your existing backup strategies for complete disaster recovery preparedness using Storix System Backup Administrator (SBAdmin), a highly flexible full-system recovery solution for UNIX and Linux systems.
Join Linux Journal's Shawn Powers and David Huffman, President/CEO, Storix, Inc.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Back to Backups
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- Google's Abacus Project: It's All about Trust
- Secure Desktops with Qubes: Introduction
- Fancy Tricks for Changing Numeric Base
- Working with Command Arguments
- Linux Mint 18
- Secure Desktops with Qubes: Installation
- Seeing Red and Getting Sleep
- CentOS 6.8 Released
Until recently, IBM’s Power Platform was looked upon as being the system that hosted IBM’s flavor of UNIX and proprietary operating system called IBM i. These servers often are found in medium-size businesses running ERP, CRM and financials for on-premise customers. By enabling the Power platform to run the Linux OS, IBM now has positioned Power to be the platform of choice for those already running Linux that are facing scalability issues, especially customers looking at analytics, big data or cloud computing.
￼Running Linux on IBM’s Power hardware offers some obvious benefits, including improved processing speed and memory bandwidth, inherent security, and simpler deployment and management. But if you look beyond the impressive architecture, you’ll also find an open ecosystem that has given rise to a strong, innovative community, as well as an inventory of system and network management applications that really help leverage the benefits offered by running Linux on Power.Get the Guide