Implement Port-Knocking Security with knockd
If You Are behind a Router
If you aren't directly connected to the Internet, but go through a router instead, you need to make some configuration changes. How you make these changes depends on your specific router and the firewall software you use, but in general terms you should do the following:
1) Forward the knock ports to your machine, so knockd will be able to recognize them.
2) Forward port 22 to your machine. Although in fact, you could forward any other port (say, 22960) to port 22 on your machine, and remote users would have to ssh -p 22960 your.site.url in order to connect to your machine. This could be seen as “security through obscurity”—a defense against script kiddies, at least.
3) Configure your machine's firewall to reject connections to port 22 and to the knock ports:
$ /usr/sbin/iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport ssh -j REJECT $ /usr/sbin/iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --sport 7005:7007 -j REJECT
The command to allow SSH connections would then be:
$ /usr/sbin/iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT
And, the command for closing it again would be:
$ /usr/sbin/iptables -D INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -j ACCEPT
Port knocking can't be the only security weapon in your arsenal, but it helps add an extra barrier to your machine and makes it harder for hackers to get a toehold into your system.
For more on port knocking, check www.portknocking.org/view, and in particular, see www.portknocking.org/view/implementations for several more implementations. Also, you might check the critique at www.linux.com/archive/articles/37888 and the answer at www.portknocking.org/view/about/critique for a point/counterpoint argument on port knocking.
Read en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol for TCP flags, especially SYN. At www.faqs.org/docs/iptables/tcpconnections.html, you can find a good diagram showing how flags are used.
Port numbers are assigned by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority); see www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers for a list.
Check www.netfilter.org if you need to refresh your iptables skills.
Federico Kereki is an Uruguayan Systems Engineer, with more than 20 years' experience teaching at universities, doing development and consulting work, and writing articles and course material. He has been using Linux for many years now, having installed it at several different companies. He is particularly interested in the better security and performance of Linux boxes.
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