Google Chrome: the Making of a Cross-Platform Browser

Google's Evan Martin and Mads Ager discuss the challenges behind making a browser work well on Linux, Mac OS and Windows.

This article on the development of the Google Chrome cross-platform browser started off like any other interview. I interacted with Google by e-mail and phone and started pulling together the responses to my questions. It turned out that the “official” responses were much shorter than I was used to. “Why are these guys so shy?”, I thought. In interviews, I typically have to whittle down my respondents' answers because they love telling their story—in glorious detail!

The Google Chrome Development Team (Photo Credit: Jeromy Henry)

So, I went back to Google to see what was up. “Free your developers to speak!”, I exclaimed. “We want to know the gritty insiders' take on Google Chrome development!” My contact there told me that interviews are challenging because a direct quote is like going “on record” and needs to be vetted by several layers of management (and maybe attorneys?). And, when you're the big fish in the pond, you have to be careful what you say. I am not used to such caution, and I certainly don't like it, but I indeed understand it.

After this and subsequent discussions, I realized we had a pretty complete picture of what Google Chrome is all about. The only hitch is that one part of the material came from direct interviews and another part came from more informal discussions and e-mail messages. Thus, we agreed that while I could talk freely about Google Chrome, only authorized material could be quoted. What follows, then, is a summary of my discussions with Google, followed by an interview with Google Chrome developers Evan Martin and Mads Ager. Martin is a Senior Google Software Engineer and Linux enthusiast working on all platforms of Google Chrome. Before working on Chrome, Martin worked on Google's search-result ranking. Mads Ager is Tech Lead for the V8 JavaScript engine project and and its integration in the Google Chrome browser; he is based in the Aarhus, Denmark, office.

Google's Strategy with Chrome

In some of my earliest conversations with Google, we talked about the company's motivations for building Chrome. After developing a range of rich and complex Web apps, the company saw that it was time to build a browser from scratch that could better handle “today's Web”. From the beginning, they focused on a browser that innovated in four key areas, namely speed, simplicity, security and stability. Early on, the Google Chrome team realized that the linchpin for innovating in these key aspects, as well as to handling the new Web apps, would be a much more efficient handling of JavaScript. Thus, the V8 JavaScript engine, explained further below, was conceived and became central to the Google Chrome Project.

Google hopes that innovations like V8 will change the feel of the desktop, making the Web apps we're using more and more feel like native ones. Besides the internal code needed to achieve efficient JavaScript processing, Google Chrome hopes to maximize this native feel by keeping the UI minimal, including an "app mode" that lets one create a desktop icon that links to a URL with merely a tiny UI around the edges.

From a development standpoint, Google noted the difficulty in making this user experience acceptable on platforms with very different capabilities and conventions. Rather than just doing a brute-force port, the Google Chrome team has focused on often taking a step back from the code and looking at the larger picture of what a certain part of the code accomplishes for the user and then translated that into more abstract benefits for the respective Linux, Mac OS or Windows user. On some platforms, native capability exists in whole or in part for core functionality, such as sandboxed processes, but not on others. This fact has required a wide range of refactoring or writing new code depending on existing functionality found on the respective platform.

One example of making Google Chrome good on the Mac platform is what the company did with WebKit. The team first had to come to terms with what it meant to use WebKit for Chrome and determine what it could provide. Interestingly, Google says that in the examples of Chrome or Safari, only about half the code is WebKit. In addition, WebKit was never really designed to be run in a separate process from the rest of the browser UI. In order to accomplish this, Google had to write much of its own drawing and event handling “plumbing” rather than simply dropping a WebView into a window in Interface Builder. However, the developers have been able to draw on much of the work that was done for the Windows version to solve this problem.

Of course, Google Chrome's entire development process is much more efficient and potent given its open-source nature. More important than trying to “win the browser war” in the traditional sense—that is, get people to use Google Chrome as their primary browser—the company feels its open-source efforts with Chrome already have stimulated and seeded a great deal of innovation and made other browsers better than they would have been in Google Chrome's absence. In fact, Google takes at least some credit for speed improvements and security enhancements that have taken place in other browsers during the past year, which is advantageous for everyone.

Given that Google Chrome is open source, we were curious to know how involved outside developers have been to its development. Although my contacts were unable to give me specific numbers, I was told that outside participation is very high, especially in terms of bug reports from users of the early developer builds of the browser. Google also works very closely with the WebKit team, so changes made by WebKit developers at Apple or others in the WebKit community are integrated into Google Chrome as well.

And now, on to the interview with Evan Martin and Mads Ager.

______________________

James Gray is Products Editor for Linux Journal

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chromium builds

mockgeek's picture

it took me a while to find these links, but i've been downloading the latest builds of chromium and running them. they are rather stable but do have some quirks about them. i wouldn't switch to this as your default browser just yet.

here is the link to the build page:
http://build.chromium.org/buildbot/snapshots/chromium-rel-linux/

i actually scripted a process to read the LATEST file in that directory which contains the version/build number of the latest and then download it.

do note that these builds come sometimes 5 or 6 a day.

Gold

davedmiller's picture

Can some one share a link to the linker "gold" mentioned in the article? Thx

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