A Way off the Ranch


As entities on the Web, we have devolved. Client-server has become calf-cow. The client—that's you—is the calf, and the Web site is the cow. What you get from the cow is milk and cookies. The milk is what you go to the site for. The cookies are what the site gives to you, mostly for its own business purposes, chief among which is tracking you like an animal. There are perhaps a billion or more server-cows now, each with its own "brand" (as marketers and cattle owners like to say).

This is not what the Net's founders had in mind. Nor was it what Tim Berners-Lee meant for his World Wide Web of hypertext documents to become. But it's what we've got, and it's getting worse.

In February 2011, Eben Moglen gave a landmark speech to the Internet Society titled "Freedom in the Cloud", in which he unpacked the problem. In the beginning, he said, the Internet was designed as "a network of peers without any intrinsic need for hierarchical or structural control, and assuming that every switch in the Net is an independent, free-standing entity whose volition is equivalent to the volition of the human beings who want to control it". Alas, "it never worked out that way". Specifically:

If you were an ordinary human, it was hard to perceive that the underlying architecture of the Net was meant to be peerage because the OS software with which you interacted very strongly instantiated the idea of the server and client architecture.

In fact, of course, if you think about it, it was even worse than that. The thing called "Windows" was a degenerate version of a thing called "X Windows". It, too, thought about the world in a server-client architecture, but what we would now think of as backwards. The server was the thing at the human being's end. That was the basic X Windows conception of the world. It served communications with human beings at the end points of the Net to processes located at arbitrary places near the center in the middle, or at the edge of the Net. It was the great idea of (Microsoft) Windows in an odd way to create a political archetype...which reduced the human being to the client and produced a big, centralized computer, which we might have called a server, which now provided things to the human being on take-it-or-leave-it terms.

True, but let's not forget Netscape's role. The HTTP cookie was created by Lou Montulli in 1994, when he was working at Netscape on the first e-commerce servers. The idea was innocent enough: to recall state and save work by remembering shared data, such as the contents of shopping carts. Today, cookies are used for many other things, including user tracking, mostly so advertising can be personalized. The less-polite word for this is spying. Eben singles out Facebook as an especially egregious offender and describes its offering this way: "I will give you free Web hosting and some PHP doodads and you get spying for free all the time".

This trade-off is the rule, not the exception. In the study that launched its "What They Know" series last year, the Wall Street Journal said all but one of the 50 most-popular Web sites installed tracking cookies in users' browsers. (The only exception, no surprise, was Wikipedia.) One, Dictionary.com, installed 234 tracking files, of which all but 11 were from tracking companies.

The end state of this system was forecast with metaphorical precision by The Matrix, back in 1999. From the standpoint of its business model, the advertising-supported commercial Web is a machine world in which users are nothing more than batteries to whom "experience" is "delivered" through pipes. In that world, advertising companies are the agents, and tracking cookies are like the electric scorpion that wiggles into Neo through his navel so he can be followed around.

Eben doesn't want us to go there. So he had a plan: FreedomBoxes. These are "cheap, small, low-power plug servers...the size of a cell-phone charger, running on a low-power chip". He sees these boxes starting cheap and dropping in price, eventually costing less than $30 apiece. That's roughly the price of cell-phone earbuds.

Thus, Eben and friends created the FreedomBox Foundation, set up a KickStarter project and quickly attracted enough donations to get rolling. (They asked for $60,000 and got $86,724.) Others jumped on board. Debian, for example, has its own FreedomBox project to support the foundation's efforts with working code.

Although Eben didn't aim his appeal to big companies, we can use their help, especially at the retail level. For FreedomBoxes to be popular, they'll need to show up where the populace shops. That means we should see FreedomBoxes on the shelves at Best Buy, Radio Shack and Walmart—and not just at, say, Amazon. Hey, companies don't need to be cows any more than humans need to be calves. When the world fills up with FreedomBoxes, customers can help companies evolve.

The economic case we need to make is that free customers are more valuable than captive ones. But, we can't make it if we're still on the ranch. We need to break out.


Doc Searls is the Editor in Chief of Linux Journal


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It's a big problem but manageable

adam rise's picture

I do agree with that, we are not sure how any of you expect the internet to be any different than society as a whole. we have to do work on it and work on the average which will we get after the promotion. Automotive Diagnostic Tools

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Freedom in the Cloud

Best Travel Websites's picture

Clearly I’m sympathetic to the fundamental ideas behind Diaspora, ownCloud and so on. In fact, I myself am currently dedicating my life to the creation of a solution that should empower users to take control over some of their most central data – email, calendar, address books, tasks, see “The Kolab Story” – and thus to provide one puzzle piece to this picture.

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odds portal's picture

Your discussed topic is really informative for me. But I want to appreciate you for the image place here for better understanding. I am familiar with lots of server and client images but it is awaysome.

Not sure how any of you

ilan ver's picture

Not sure how any of you expect the internet to be any different than society at large. We live in a top-down hierarchical system, not a system of equal peers. Why would our virtual representation be any different? Wouldn't that be a little misleading ilan ver? Sorry, people, but we've let society get to where it is and the net is a perfect mirror. Fix society then you can worry about the drapes.

Yes I do agree with you this

Anonymous's picture

Yes I do agree with you this was very great concept of cow and calf by these sort of concept the whole theory becomes easy to understand that means a lot and then after the milk and cookies concept was really amazing to understand and the picture is very good of client and server in cow and calf

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Anonymous's picture

I was bothered by all the tracking info and then it occurred to me to use firefox
to check if any cookies were being placed on my computer. This article's web page on Linux Journal stored 5 cookies on my computer! Wow, how about that! I took screenshots of the results.I must admit ,I was disappointed.


Doston Riche's picture

Not sure how any of you expect the internet to be any different than society at large. We live in a top-down hierarchical system, not a system of equal peers. Why would our virtual representation be any different? Wouldn't that be a little misleading? Sorry, people, but we've let society get to where it is and the net is a perfect mirror. Fix society then you can worry about the drapes.

Big Brother

centec's picture

by now google and facebook know about everything there is to know about each of us, and for the most part the only things that we where able to keep some how private where some of out business information, like income, future projects etc, but know soon we will willing lee put this information on the cloud where it will be hosted by google or other companies a like. I personally think this new technology is great but a little scary at the same time

The kind of software that

Aswath Rao's picture

The kind of software that Prof. Moglen envisions has been available since 2007. Of course not all his requirements, like ability to mesh, but the basic ones like free as in Freedom and also avoiding cow-calf model that you mention. That software does even run in a prototypical FreedomBox. But the difficulty has been getting some exposure from thought leaders and popular outlets. So I hope this particular effort has a better luck.

But, what is this a solution to?

Gunksta's picture

This article can be broken into 2 sections. Section 1, the problem. Section 2, the solution. Usually, the solution is connected to the problem in a way that is understood by the reader. In this case, I don't know if I agree or disagree with the author because I really don't see how the solution (freedom boxes) is connected to the problem (internet cookies).

Section 1 - The problem. In section 1 the author describes the problem of a client-server relationship. I thought the comparison between cookies and X Windows was a little weak, section one does describe the client-server problem as seen by the author.

Section 2 - The Solution. In section 2 the author describes, briefly, the idea of these "freedom boxes". Beyond the fact that the name is even worse than "freedom fries" the author does not tell us how these mini-servers will solve the problem.

I will admit that I didn't click through and read the source documentation, but I just don't see how adding more servers will solve this problem. I agree that the explosion of data gathering and spy-cookies on the internet is a real problem. I happen to be a big fan of privacy. But, I don't grok how adding a bunch of small home servers to the internet will affect this. I run a server at home. It supports a small web-page and gives me the ability to off-load heavy database tasks from my laptop, but my server does not protect me from the various companies that are out there installing cookies on my laptop to track my browsing habits.

Maybe I'm just slow.


Anonymous's picture

See raspberrypi.org. For a picture, see:
$25 for the A version, will need a USB wifi stick to connect to your router. Or $35 for 100baseT version. Debian, Arch, or Redhat. Power: 6v, 1w for A version. There's no shortage of webserver software. Available Nov.2011, apparently.

The big problem seems to be: will your ISP allow you to run a server? Apparently the big ones don't, at all, ever.