Low Power Wireless: 6LoWPAN, IEEE802.15.4 and the Raspberry Pi
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the new kids on the block. It promises connection of sensors and actuators to the internet, for data to flow both ways, and once on the internet, to become part of new and exciting business systems, reaching up into the realms of big data and artificial intelligence.
IoT applications will rely on a large and complex system. One of the components in this will be the connections between sensors and actuators and the internet. This will most likely be wireless, and it will have to be low power. If you have a thousand sensors, they will most likely be running off batteries, and you will want those batteries to last years, not days.
Low power wireless is heading in two directions right now: personal-area networks (LoWPAN) spanning up to 20–30 meters and wide-area networking (LPWAN) of up to 20 or more kilometers. The technologies at the physical layer are completely different and lead to different Linux solutions. This article deals only with LoWPAN.
The physical layer for LoWPAN is specified by IEEE802.15.4. This defines communication using various wireless bands, such as 2.4GHz, with a range of about 10 meters and data transfer rates of 250kb/s—good enough for most sensors, but not good enough to stream MP3s!
On top of IEEE802.15.4 is a variety of protocols: Zigbee, Z-Wave, Thread and so on. Of these, only the IETF 6LoWPAN is an open standard, and this is where the Linux development community has settled. This article covers only 6LoWPAN. I also ignore other wireless systems, such as Bluetooth LE.
6LoWPAN and Linux
6LoWPAN is IPv6 over IEEE802.15.4 wireless. That isn't easy. IPv6 is designed for the current internet, while IEEE802.15.4 is designed for a different environment. You don't need to worry about how this mismatch has been overcome, but it does mean you need to be aware that two different levels are dealt with here: getting two wireless devices to talk to each other and getting a networking layer talking over these devices.
The device layer is where physical hardware choices come into play. Linux supports several devices, such as the AT86RF230 series, the MRF24J40 and several others. The kernel needs to have those device drivers compiled in or available as dynamically loadable modules.
The networking layer requires 6LoWPAN support. Again, the kernel needs to have this compiled in or available as modules. These modules are the ieee802154_6LoWPAN, ieee802154 and mac802154 modules.
6LoWPAN Devices and the Raspberry Pi
The Raspberry Pi is a wonderful toy or a full-blown Linux computer, depending on your viewpoint. With its GPIO pins, it can act as a connection into the realm of sensors and actuators, while with Ethernet (and on the RPi3, Wi-Fi), it can be a part of LANs and WANs. For the IoT, it (and the Arduino) form an excellent bridge between the physical and ICT worlds. But, there are now IEEE802.15.4 modules available, and they can be used to turn an RPi into a "full-function 6LoWPAN device".
I used the RPi with the OpenLabs "Raspberry Pi 802.15.4 radio". This is an Atmel AT86RF233 radio on a small board with a header that allows it to be plugged straight onto pins 15–26 of the RPi. It can be plugged in facing out or facing in—facing in the right way to do it.
I started off using the standard Raspbian distro (dated May 27, 2016). This can be set up to recognize the radio, but—oh dear!—the 4.4 Linux kernel it uses has 6LoWPAN modules, but they don't work properly in that kernel. The IPv6 packets get corrupted even for pinging itself, so this Raspbian distro won't support 6LoWPAN.
The hunt is on then for a setup that allows the RPi to support 6LoWPAN with an AT86RF233 radio. This is painful: there are many helpful sites that are outdated or with instructions that I just couldn't get to work. I finally was pointed by Sebastian Meiling to his page "Create a generic Raspbian image with 6LoWPAN support". In summary, what is needed is an upstream Linux kernel, 4.7 or 4.8, recent firmware and suitable configuration of the /boot/config.txt file. At the time of this writing, these instructions work only for the RPi 1 and 2. The RPi 3 isn't working yet, but it may be by the time this article is published.
Installing a 6LoWPAN Kernel
For this article I'm using the OpenLabs module on the RPi 2B. For other modules and RPis, see Sebastian's page. I'm also going to assume a reasonable amount of Linux savvy in installing software and building from source.
Start by installing the latest Raspbian image. If that runs a 4.7 (or
later) kernel, you may be okay already; otherwise, you need to build and
install an upstream 4.7 kernel. You probably will need extra tools for
this, such as
bc and maybe development
tools that you can install using
Before you do anything else, make sure your system is up to date by running:
This will install the latest firmware bootloader.
Download a 4.7 kernel into the linux-rpi2 directory with:
git clone --depth 1 https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git \ --branch rpi-4.7.y --single-branch linux-rpi2
Building a kernel means compiling a lot of files and is very slow on the RPi. Most people recommend cross-compiling, but that's more complex, and I like things simple. So, I prefer to build on the RPi itself. It takes only about 5 hours, so start it up, and either go to bed or go out, listen to some jazz and stay out late.
Jan Newmarch has written many books and papers about software engineering, network programming, user interfaces and artificial intelligence, and he is currently digging into the IoT.
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