JavaScript All the Way Down

Node.js: a New Kind of Server

Node.js (or plain Node, as it's usually called) is a Web server, mainly written itself in JavaScript, which uses that language for all scripting. It originally was developed to simplify developing real-time Web sites with push capabilities—so instead of all communications being client-originated, the server might start a connection with a client by itself. Node can work with lots of live connections, because it's very lightweight in terms of requirements. There are two key concepts to Node: it runs a single process (instead of many), and all I/O (database queries, file accesses and so on) is implemented in a non-blocking, asynchronous way.

Let's go a little deeper and further examine the main difference between Node and more traditional servers like Apache. Whenever Apache receives a request, it starts a new, separate thread (process) that uses RAM of its own and CPU processing power. (If too many threads are running, the request may have to wait a bit longer until it can be started.) When the thread produces its answer, the thread is done. The maximum number of possible threads depends on the average RAM requirements for a process; it might be a few thousand at the same time, although numbers vary depending on server size (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Apache and traditional Web servers run a separate thread for each request.

On the other hand, Node runs a single thread. Whenever a request is received, it is processed as soon as it's possible, and it will run continuously until some I/O is required. Then, while the code waits for the I/O results to be available, Node will be able to process other waiting requests (Figure 3). Because all requests are served by a single process, the possible number of running requests rises, and there have been experiments with more than one million concurrent connections—not shabby at all! This shows that an ideal use case for Node is having server processes that are light in CPU processing, but high on I/O. This will allow more requests to run at the same time; CPU-intensive server processes would block all other waiting requests and produce a high drop in output.

Figure 3. Node runs a single thread for all requests.

A great asset of Node is that there are many available modules (an estimate ran in the thousands) that help you get to production more quickly. Though I obviously can't list all of them, you probably should consider some of the modules listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Some widely used Node.js modules that will help your development and operation.

Module Description
async Simplifies asynchronous work, a possible alternative to promises.
cluster Improves concurrency in multicore systems by forking worker processes. (For further scalability, you also could set up a reverse proxy and run several Node.js instances, but that goes beyond the objective of this article.)
connect Works with "middleware" for common tasks, such as error handling, logging, serving static files and more.
ejs, handlebars or jade, EJS Templating engines.
express A minimal Web framework—the E in MEAN.
forever A command-line tool that will keep your server up, restarting if needed after a crash or other problem.
mongoose, cradle, sequelize Database ORM, for MongoDB, CouchDB and for relational databases, such as MySQL and others.
passport Authentication middleware, which can work with OAuth providers, such as Facebook, Twitter, Google and more.
request or superagent HTTP clients, quite useful for interacting with RESTful APIs.
underscore or lodash Tools for functional programming and for extending the JavaScript core objects.

Of course, there are some caveats when using Node.js. An obvious one is that no process should do heavy computations, which would "choke" Node's single processing thread. If such a process is needed, it should be done by an external process (you might want to consider using a message queue for this) so as not to block other requests. Also, care must be taken with error processing. An unhandled exception might cause the whole server to crash eventually, which wouldn't bode well for the server as a whole. On the other hand, having a large community of users and plenty of fully available, production-level, tested code already on hand can save you quite a bit of development time and let you set up a modern, fast server environment.

Planning and Organizing Your Application

When starting out with a new project, you could set up your code from zero and program everything from scratch, but several frameworks can help you with much of the work and provide clear structure and organization to your Web application. Choosing the right framework will have an important impact on your development time, on your testing and on the maintainability of your site. Of course, there is no single answer to the question "What framework is best?", and new frameworks appear almost on a daily basis, so I'm just going with three of the top solutions that are available today: AngularJS, Backbone and Ember. Basically, all of these frameworks are available under permissive licenses and give you a head start on developing modern SPA (single page applications). For the server side, several packages (such as Sails, to give just one example) work with all frameworks.

AngularJS (or Angular.JS or just plain Angular—take your pick) was developed in 2009 by Google, and its current version is 1.3.4, dated November 2014. The framework is based on the idea that declarative programming is best for interfaces (and imperative programming for the business logic), so it extends HTML with custom tag attributes that are used to bind input and output data to a JavaScript model. In this fashion, programmers don't have to manipulate the Web page directly, because it is updated automatically. Angular also focuses on testing, because the difficulty of automatic testing heavily depends upon the code structure. Note that Angular is the A in MEAN, so there are some other frameworks that expand on it, such as MEAN.IO or MEAN.JS.

Backbone is a lighter, leaner framework, dated from 2010, which uses a RESTful JSON interface to update the server side automatically. (Fun fact: Backbone was created by Jeremy Ashkenas, who also developed CoffeeScript; see the "What's in a Name?" sidebar.) In terms of community size, it's second only to Angular, and in code size, it's by far the smallest one. Backbone doesn't include a templating engine of its own, but it works fine with Underscore's templating, and given that this library is included by default, it is a simple choice to make. It's considered to be less "opinionated" than other frameworks and to have a quite shallow learning curve, which means that you'll be able to start working quickly. A deficiency is that Backbone lacks two-way data binding, so you'll have to write code to update the view whenever the model changes and vice versa. Also, you'll probably be manipulating the Web page directly, which will make your code harder to unit test.

Finally, Ember probably is harder to learn than the other frameworks, but it rewards the coder with higher performance. It favors "convention over configuration", which likely will make Ruby on Rails or Symfony users feel right at home. It integrates easily with a RESTful server side, using JSON for communication. Ember includes Handlebars (see Table 2) for templating and provides two-way updates. A negative point is the usage of <script> tags for markers, in order to keep templates up to date with the model. If you try to debug a running application, you'll find plenty of unexpected elements!

Simplify and Empower Your Coding

It's a sure bet that your application will need to work with HTML, handle all kinds of events and do AJAX calls to connect with the server. This should be reasonably easy—although it might be plenty of work—but even today, browsers do not have exactly the same features. Thus, you might have to go overboard with specific browser-detection techniques, so your code will adapt and work everywhere. Modern application users have grown accustomed to working with different events (tap, double tap, long tap, drag and drop, and more), and you should be able to include that kind of processing in your code, possibly with appropriate animations. Finally, connecting to a server is a must, so you'll be using AJAX functions all the time, and it shouldn't be a painful experience.

The most probable candidate library to help you with all these functions is jQuery. Arguably, it's the most popular JavaScript library in use today, employed at more than 60% of the most visited Web sites. jQuery provides tools for navigating your application's Web document, handles events with ease, applies animations and uses AJAX (Listing 1). Its current version is 2.1.1 (or 1.11.1, if you want to support older browsers), and it weighs in at only around 32K. Some frameworks (Angular, for example) even will use it if available.

Listing 1. A simple jQuery example, showing how to process events, access the page and use AJAX.

var myButtonId = "#processButton");
$(myButtonId).click(function(e) {		 // when clicked...
    $(myButtonId).attr("disabled", "disabled");	 // disable button
    $.get("my/own/services", function(data) {	 // call server service
	window.alert("This came back: " + data); // show what it returns
	$(myButtonId).removeAttr("disabled");	 // re-enable the button

Other somewhat less used possibilities could be Prototype (current version 1.7.2), MooTools (version 1.5.1) or Dojo Toolkit (version 11). One of the key selling points of all these libraries is the abstraction of the differences between browsers, so you can write your code without worrying if it will run on such or such browser. You probably should take a look at all of them to find which one best fits your programming style.

Also, there's one more kind of library you may want. Callbacks are familiar to JavaScript programmers who need them for AJAX calls, but when programming for Node, there certainly will be plenty of them! You should be looking at "promises", a way of programming that will make callback programming more readable and save you from "callback hell"—a situation in which you need a callback, and that callback also needs a callback, which also needs one and so on, making code really hard to follow. See Listing 2, which also shows the growing indentation that your code will need. I'm omitting error-processing code, which would make the example even messier!

Listing 2. Callback hell happens when callbacks include callbacks, which include callbacks and so on.

function nurseryRhyme(...) {
  ..., function eeny(...) {
    ..., function meeny(...) {
      ..., function miny(...) {
        ..., function moe(...) {

The behavior of promises is standardized through the "Promises/A+" open specification. Several packages provide promises (jQuery and Dojo already include some support for them), and in general, they even can interact, processing each other's promises. A promise is an object that represents the future value of an (usually asynchronous) operation. You can process this value through the promise .then(...) method and handle exceptions with its .catch(...) method. Promises can be chained, and a promise can produce a new promise, the value of which will be processed in the next .then(...). With this style, the callback hell example of Listing 2 would be converted into more understandable code; see Listing 3. Code, instead of being more and more indented, stays aligned to the left. Callbacks still are being (internally) used, but your code doesn't explicitly work with them. Error handling is also simpler; you simply would add appropriate .catch(...) calls.