Paranoid Penguin - Linux Firewalls for Everyone
All Linux firewalls work the same way. A series of iptables commands are executed in sequence to load firewall rules into kernel memory space. All packets entering all network interfaces are then evaluated by the kernel based on these rules and handled accordingly. These rules are organized in tables (formerly, and still occasionally, called chains). Rules can be inserted, appended, changed and deleted from any table at any time via the iptables command and take effect immediately.
The most direct way to create a Linux firewall policy is to write an iptables startup script from scratch and then manage it like any other startup script in init.d. This is how I manage my own Linux firewalls, and it works fine if you understand networking, you're comfortable with the iptables command, and you don't have many different firewalls to manage or more than a couple of different policies on any given firewall.
To learn how to roll your own iptables scripts, refer to the Resources for this article. As I said previously, I simply can't do that topic justice here. (Note that different Linux distributions handle startup scripts differently.) If you want to harness the full power of iptables, including NAT, custom chains and packet-mangling, this really is the best way to go.
Assuming you can't, or don't, want to write iptables scripts directly, here are some pointers to tools that can help.
The first category of iptables tools I dicuss here probably already exists on your system. Nowadays, nearly all Linux distributions include a firewall wizard in their installation utilities. Nearly always, this wizard is intended for creating a local firewall policy—that is, a personal firewall script, which protects only the local host.
These wizards all work the same way. They ask you which local services you want to allow external hosts to reach, if any. For example, if I'm installing Linux on an SMTP e-mail server, I would allow inbound connections only to TCP port 25 (SMTP), though possibly also to TCP port 22 (Secure Shell, which I may need for remote administration).
Based on your response, the wizard then creates a startup script containing iptables commands that allow incoming requests to the services/ports you specified, block all other inbound (externally originating) transactions and allow all outbound (locally originating) network transactions.
But wait! That third command violates Ranum's principle (deny all that is not explicitly permitted), doesn't it? Yes, it does. That's why I write my own iptables scripts even for local firewall policies. You need to decide for yourself in any given situation whether you can live with the “allow some inbound, allow all outbound” compromise, which is undeniably the simplest approach to local firewalls, or whether you're worried enough about the threat of malware mischief to write a more restrictive script, either manually or using a more sophisticated firewall tool than your Linux distribution's installer.
Note that as with other functions of Linux installers, these firewall wizards usually can be run again later, for example, in SUSE via YaST's Security and Users→Firewall module.
We've discussed the hard way (writing your own iptables startup script) and the easy way (letting your Linux installer generate a local firewall script). There are, however, many other tools for generating and managing sophisticated firewall scripts. Two of the most popular are Shorewall and Firewall Builder (see Resources).
Shorewall is, essentially, a script/macro environment that lets you create firewall policies in the form of text files, which are then “compiled” into iptables scripts. Shorewall's strengths are its flexibility, its ability to insulate users from needing to learn iptables syntax and its convenience in automatically generating startup scripts. If you understand networking, however, learning to use Shorewall isn't necessarily that much less time consuming than learning iptables.
For this reason, I've personally not used Shorewall very much. Friends of mine, however, who know less than me about networking but more about system administration, swear by it.
Firewall Builder, which I covered several years ago in the May and June 2003 issues of Linux Journal, is something else altogether. It's the firewall equivalent of an Integrated Development Environment—that is, a graphical, object-oriented interface for generating iptables scripts (among other firewall types).
Conceptually, Firewall Builder is very similar to the policy editor in Check Point firewalls. You create “objects” for the networks and hosts you want to use in rules, and then you arrange those objects and predefined “service” objects (HTTP, IMAP, FTP and so forth) into graphical rules statements. Firewall Builder not only generates these into iptables scripts, but it also can install them on other systems via SSH.
In my experience, the main strike against Firewall Builder is its somewhat lengthy list of dependencies, chief among them the Qt libraries for GUI development. However, many of the things Firewall Builder needs are now standard Linux packages included on typical distributions, so this is less of a problem than it used to be. See the Firewall Builder home page for detailed installation instructions.
Other graphical iptables utilities include Firestarter and Guarddog (see Resources).
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- The sysctl Interface
- Completely Fair Scheduler
- Paranoid Penguin - DNS Cache Poisoning, Part I
- Spotlight on Linux: Linvo GNU/Linux
- Tails above the Rest, Part II
- The Ubuntu Conspiracy
- Understanding Red Hat Run Levels
- ISDN and Linux—Surfing at Warp Speed
- Open Source Summit