Single Packet Authorization
The end result of the above discussion is that port knocking provides some real benefits that enhance security, but some serious limitations also need to be addressed. Single Packet Authorization is a relatively new protocol that retains all of the benefits of port knocking, but fixes the limitations discussed above. The first publicly available SPA implementation was released in May 2005 as a piece of software called fwknop (www.cipherdyne.org/fwknop). fwknop was originally created in 2004 as the first port knocking implementation to combine passive OS fingerprinting and port knocking (this made it possible to do things like “accept knock sequences only from Linux-2.4 systems”), but the SPA method is now the most popular (and default) authentication method offered by fwknop. Note that fwknop provides both authentication and authorization services, but a full discussion of the difference between the two is beyond the scope of this article.
Single Packet Authorization mandates a similar architecture to port knocking. Both have client and server components, the server maintains control of a default-drop packet filter, and the server monitors packets passively. However, this is where the architectural similarities between port knocking and SPA diverge.
Single Packet Authorization moves the data transmission to where it belongs—in the application layer. This implies that instead of being able to send only two bytes of data per packet, as in the case of port knocking, SPA is able to send up to the minimum MTU worth of data (1,500 bytes on Ethernet networks) between the client and the server in each packet. This far outstrips the data transmission rate possible with port knocking, and having easy access to this amount of packet data opens up a huge range of possibilities. The remainder of this article discusses Single Packet Authorization as implemented by fwknop.
fwknop defines the following packet format at the application layer:
16 bytes of random data
Mode (access or command)
Access (or command string)
Many of the fields in the SPA packet format have a variable length, but are separated by a : character (fields are base64-encoded, so embedded colons cannot break this syntax). Once the fwknop client builds the packet format above, the entire packet is encrypted using one of two encryption algorithms: the Rijndael symmetric block cipher with a 128-bit shared key or the asymmetric ElGamal algorithm with up to a 2,048-bit public/private key pair generated by GnuPG. By default, the fwknop client sends SPA packets over UDP port 62201, but this easily can be changed from the command line; see the --Server-port argument. (fwknop offers many configuration options—see Resources for a link to the documentation and man pages.) For a graphical representation of SPA in action, see Figure 2.
So, what are all the fields for? First, the 16 bytes of random data allows one of the highest priority limitations in port knocking to be solved—the replay problem. Every SPA packet is prepended with 16 bytes of random data before being encrypted, and then upon a successful decrypt by the fwknop server, the MD5 sum of the entire packet is cached. The random data allows every SPA packet to be different (even when the same access directive is sent), so the MD5 sum of every packet also has a high probability of being different. If the MD5 sum of any new packet matches the sum of a previous packet, the fwknop server takes no action and writes a warning message to syslog. Hence, any SPA packet that is intercepted by a third party cannot be replayed on the network in an effort to get access through the default-drop packet filter.
The client username and timestamp are placed within the packet by fwknop and the username is used to maintain different authorization levels for remote users by the fwknop server. fwknop can be installed on a multiuser system, and each user can be authorized to connect to different services by a remote fwknop server. The fwknop version field is used to maintain backward compatibility. Fields can be added or deleted in new releases of fwknop, but by using the version number, the fwknop server can remain compatible with the manner in which older clients build SPA packets. The mode field tells the fwknop server whether the client wants to access a service or execute a command (with the specific access control directive or command in the next field). For example, to gain access to TCP port 22, the Access field would contain the string <IP>,tcp/22 where <IP> is whatever IP address the client chose to put in the packet. Finally, the MD5 sum field contains the MD5 sum of the unencrypted packet before the client transmits it. This is used by the server to verify message integrity after decryption.
We already have seen how the increased amount of data that can be transmitted via an SPA packet has solved the replay problem and the extremely low data transmission rate in port knocking schemes. We have two remaining limitations in port knocking that need to be addressed. First, the single packet nature of the SPA protocol means that a malicious third party cannot break the authentication scheme just by spoofing a packet to the same port over which a monitored SPA packet is sent. Finally, because the SPA protocol requires only a single packet, it does not appear to any intermediate IDS like a port scan. All that any IDS can see is an unintelligible blob of data seemingly spuriously sent to some IP address.
- Smoothwall Express
- Machine Learning Everywhere
- Own Your DNS Data
- Simple Server Hardening
- Bash Shell Script: Building a Better March Madness Bracket
- Returning Values from Bash Functions
- Understanding Firewalld in Multi-Zone Configurations
- Understanding OpenStack's Success
- Tech Tip: Really Simple HTTP Server with Python
- From vs. to + for Microsoft and Linux