Fedora Directory Server: the Evolution of Linux Authentication
With our infrastructure in place, we can connect our desktop clients. For our configuration, we use native Fedora 6 clients and Windows XP clients to simulate a mixed environment. Other Linux flavors can connect to FDS, but for space constraints, we won't delve into connecting them. It should be noted that most distributions like Fedora use PAM, the /etc/nsswitch.conf and /etc/ldap.conf files to set up LDAP authentication. Regardless of client type, the user account attempting to log in must contain Posix information in the directory in order to authenticate to the FDS server. To connect Fedora clients, use the built-in Authentication utility available in both GNOME and KDE (Figure 9). The nice thing about the utility is that it does all the work for you. You do not have to edit any of the other files previously mentioned manually. Open the utility and enable LDAP on the User Information tab and the Authentication tabs. Once you click OK to these settings, Fedora updates your nsswitch.conf and /etc/pam.d/system-auth files immediately. Upon reboot, your system now uses PAM instead of your local passwd and shadow files to authenticate users.
During login, the local system pulls the LDAP account's Posix information from FDS and sets the system to match the preferences set on the account regarding home directory and shell options. With a little manual work, you also can use automount locally to authenticate and mount network volumes at login time automatically.
Connecting XP clients is almost as easy. Typically, NT/2000/XP users are forced to use the built-in MSGINA.dll to authenticate to Microsoft networks only. In the past, vendors such as Novell have used their own proprietary clients to work around this, but now the open-source pgina client has solved this problem. To connect 2000/XP clients, download the main pgina zipfile from the project page on SourceForge, and extract the files. For this article, I used version 1.8.4 as I ran into some dll issues with version 1.8.8. You also need to download and extract the Plugin bundle. Run the x86 installer from the extracted files, accepting all default options, but do not start the Configuration Tool at the end. Next, install the LDAPAuth plugin from the extracted Plugin bundle. When done installing, open the Configuration Tool under the Pgina Program Group under the Start menu. On the Plugin tab, browse to your ldapauth_plus.dll in the directory specified during the install. Check off the option to Show authentication method selection box. This gives you the option of logging locally if you run into problems. Without this, the only way to bypass the pgina client is through Safe Mode. Now, click on the Configure button, and enter the LDAP server name, port and context you want pgina to use to search for clients. I suggest using the Search Mode as your LDAP method as it will search the entire directory if it cannot find your user ID. Click OK twice to save your settings. Use the Plugin Tester tool before rebooting to load your client and test connectivity (Figure 10). On the next login, the user will receive the prompt shown in Figure 11.
FDS is a powerful platform, and this article has barely scratched the surface. There simply is not room to squeeze all of FDS's other features, such as encryption or AD synchronization, into a single article. If you are interested in these items or want to know how to extend FDS to other applications, check out the wiki and the how-tos on the project's documentation page for further information. Judging from our simple configuration here, FDS seems evolutionary, not revolutionary. It does not change the way in which LDAP operates at a fundamental level. What it does do is take the complex task of administering LDAP and makes it easier while extending normally commercial features, such as MMR, to open source. By adding pgina into the mix, you can tap further into FDS's flexibility and cost savings without needing to deploy an array of services to connect Windows and Linux clients. So, if you are looking for a simple, reliable and cost-saving alternative to other LDAP products, consider FDS.
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- What I Wish I’d Known When I Was an Embedded Linux Newbie
- Updates from LinuxCon and ContainerCon, Toronto, August 2016
- NVMe over Fabrics Support Coming to the Linux 4.8 Kernel
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