SMP and Embedded Real Time
Priority inversion is illustrated by Figure 9. A low-priority process P2 holds a lock, but is preempted by medium-priority processes. When high-priority process P1 tries to acquire the lock, it must wait, because P2 holds it. But P2 cannot release it until it runs again, which will not happen while the medium-priority processes are running. So, in effect, the medium-priority processes have blocked a high-priority process: in short, priority inversion.
One way to prevent priority inversion is to disable preemption during critical sections, as is done in CONFIG_PREEMPT builds of the Linux kernel. However, this preemption disabling can result in excessive latencies.
The -rt patchset therefore uses priority inheritance instead, so that P1 donates its priority to P2, but only for as long as P2 continues to hold the lock, as shown in Figure 10. Because P2 is now running at high priority, it preempts the medium-priority processes, completing its critical section quickly and then handing the lock off to P1.
So priority inheritance works well for exclusive locks, where only one thread can hold the lock at a given time. But there are also reader-writer locks, which can be held by one writer on the one hand or by an unlimited number of readers on the other. The fact that a reader-writer lock can be held by an unlimited number of readers can be a real problem for priority inheritance, as illustrated in Figure 11. Here, several low-priority processes are read-holding lock L1, but are preempted by medium-priority processes. Each low-priority process might also be blocked write-acquiring other locks, which might be read-held by even more low-priority processes, all of which are also preempted by the medium-priority processes.
Priority inheritance can solve this problem, but the cure is worse than the disease. For example, the arbitrarily bushy tree of preempted processes requires complex and slow bookkeeping. But even worse, before the high-priority writer can proceed, all of the low-priority processes must complete their critical sections, which will result in arbitrarily long delays.
Such delays are not what we want in a real-time system. This situation resulted in numerous “spirited” discussions on the Linux-kernel mailing list, which Ingo Molnar closed down with the following proposal:
Only one task at a time may read-acquire a given reader-writer lock.
If #1 results in performance or scalability problems, the problematic lock will be replaced with RCU (read-copy update).
RCU can be thought of as a reader-writer lock where readers never block; in fact, readers execute a deterministic number of instructions. Writers have much higher overhead, as they must retain old versions of the data structure that readers might still be referencing. RCU provides special primitives to allow writers to determine when all readers have completed, so that the writer can determine when it is safe to free old versions. RCU works best for read-mostly data structures, or for data structures with hard real-time readers. (More detail may be found at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCU, and even more detail may be found at www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/RCU. Although user-level RCU implementations have been produced for experimental purposes, for example, www.cs.toronto.edu/~tomhart/perflab/ipdps06.tgz, production-quality RCU implementations are currently found only in kernels. Fixing this is on my to-do list.)
A key property of RCU is that writers never block readers, and, conversely, readers do not block writers from modifying a data structure. Therefore, RCU cannot cause priority inversion. This is illustrated in Figure 12. Here, the low-priority processes are in RCU read-side critical sections and are preempted by medium-priority processes, but because the locks are used only to coordinate updates, the high-priority process P1 immediately can acquire the lock and carry out the update by creating a new version. Freeing the old version does have to wait for readers to complete, but this freeing can be deferred to avoid degrading real-time latencies.
This combination of priority inheritance and RCU permits the -rt patchset to provide real-time latencies on mid-range multiprocessors. But priority inheritance is not a panacea. For example, one could imagine applying some form of priority inheritance to real-live users who might be blocking high-priority processes, as shown in Figure 13. However, I would rather we did not.
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