Clustering Is Not Rocket Science
As we are interested in massively parallel computations, we needed to configure the servers to communicate with each other. We installed lam-mpi to use as a message-passing interface, and we configured the SSH service on each node to allow passwordless access between nodes by using host-based authentication. Note that lam-mpi doesn't do all the work of parallelizing your application; you still need to write or have available an MPI-aware code.
We configured an NFS (Network File System) server to provide a shared filesystem for all of the cluster compute nodes. We share the home directories of users across all nodes and some of the specialist applications we use for scientific computing. User accounts are managed by the Network Information Service (NIS) that comes standard with most Linux distributions.
Previously, our computational group was about four people sharing time on five nodes. We had an extremely reliable job-scheduling system that involved a whiteboard and some marker pens. Clearly, this method of job scheduling would not scale as we expanded to a user base of about 40 users. We chose the Sun Grid Engine scheduling and batch processing software to install on the cluster.
The other challenge with the expanded user base was that the majority of users had limited experience with an HPC facility and little or no experience using Linux. We decided that one of the best ways to share information about using the cluster was through the use of a wiki page. We set up a wiki page with the MediaWiki package. The wiki page has all manner of information about the cluster—from basic newbie-type information about copying files onto the cluster to advanced usage information about various compilers. The wiki page has been useful in bridging the knowledge gap between the sysadmins and the newbie users. The wiki allows for inexperienced cluster users to modify the documentation to make it simpler for other new players and also add neat tricks they may have devised themselves. The dynamic nature of a wiki page is a clear advantage when it comes to keeping documentation about the cluster facility up to date.
The second purpose of the wiki is to maintain an administrator's log of work on the cluster. As we sit in separate buildings, it was not practical to keep a traditional (physical) logbook. Instead, we use the wiki page to keep each other abreast of changes to the cluster. We actually keep this part of the Web page password-protected to ensure against any wiki vandalism.
Sometimes it is necessary to issue commands on every node of the cluster or copy some files onto all nodes. Again, this wasn't a problem with five or six machines—we'd simply log in to the machines individually and do whatever was necessary. But with 66 machines, logging in to each machine individually becomes both tedious and error-prone. Our solution here was to use the C3 package developed by the group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. C3 stands for cluster command and control. It provides a set of Python scripts that allows for remote execution of commands across the cluster. There is also a tool to allow for copying files to groups of compute nodes. This is a Python script that uses rsync to do the transfer.
Speaking of Python scripts, we have found Python to be a useful all-purpose scripting language for cluster work. The particular attraction to Python is its sophisticated support for string manipulation. This allows us to take the text-based output from a number of standalone programs and parse it into more meaningful information. For example, the queuing system provides some detailed information about the status of the cluster, such as available processors on each node and queue availability on each node. Using Python, we can take the detailed output from such a command and provide some summary statistics that give us an indication of cluster load at a glance. Another example of Python scripts in action is our monitoring of temperatures on the compute nodes. This script is displayed in Listing 1. Python's ease of string handling and access to system services come in handy for many scripting tasks on the cluster.
Listing 1. Temperature Monitoring with Python Scripting
---- monitor_temp.py ---- SHUTOFF_TEMP = 50.0 mail_list = ['email@example.com'] import os, re, smtplib def send_mail(toaddrs, msg): fromaddr = 'firstname.lastname@example.org' server = smtplib.SMTP('smtp.uq.edu.au') server.sendmail(fromaddr, toaddrs, msg) server.quit() f = os.popen('hostname', "r") hostname = f.readline().split() svc_proc = hostname[:4] + 'sp' + hostname[4:] f.close() f = os.popen("ipmitool -I lan -P password -H %s sensor | grep 'cpu[0-1].memtemp'" % svc_proc, "r") mail_sent = False for line in f.readlines(): if mail_sent: break tokens = line.split() str = tokens if str == 'NA': temp = 1.0 else: temp = float(str) if temp >= SHUTOFF_TEMP: msg = 'Re: hot temperature initiated shutdown for %s\n' % hostname msg += 'The CPU memtemp for %s exceeded %.1f.\n' % (hostname, SHUTOFF_TEMP) msg += 'This node has been shutdown.\n' for address in mail_list: send_mail(address, msg) # Clean up scratch and power down os.system('rm -rf /scratch/*') os.system('/sbin/shutdown now -h') mail_sent = True
The temperature monitoring script makes use of the intelligent platform management interface (IPMI). By using the IPMI specification, we had an implementation of a monitoring subsystem that permitted fully remote and customizable management of the compute nodes. Each compute node came equipped with a PowerPC service processor that communicated on a separate network from the main cluster. By combining the power of the open-source tools of Python and IPMItool, we created a totally autonomous thermal monitoring system. The system can shut down individual compute nodes if they exceed a predetermined temperature or cut the power if the server doesn't respond to a shutdown command. An e-mail is also sent, using the Python smtplib, to the admin team to advise of the situation.
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- 2014 Book Roundup
- January 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: Security