Build a Home Terabyte Backup System Using Linux
A terabyte-plus backup and storage system is now an affordable option for Linux users. This article discusses options for building and configuring an inexpensive, expandable, Linux-based backup server.
High-capacity disk drives are now widely available at prices that are incredibly cheap compared to those of only a few years ago. In addition, with so many Linux users now ripping CDs to disk, saving images from their digital cameras and recording video using digital camcorders and DVRs, such as MythTV, the need for backing up and archiving large amounts of data is becoming critical. Losing pictures and videos of your kids—or your audio music library—because of a disk crash would be a catastrophe. Fortunately, a high-capacity, Linux-based backup server can be built easily and cheaply using inexpensive disk drives and free software.
Virtually any home PC can meet the basic requirements for a backup server. If you have long backup windows or relatively small amounts of data, a slow computer is not an obstacle. Make sure your network is fast enough to transfer data within your backup window. For older equipment, the bottleneck for backups can be the disk data transfer bandwidth (30-150Mbps depending on disk technology).
Many consumer-level computers do not have cooling capacity for more than two internal hard disks. Most motherboards support a maximum of four onboard disks (often four ATA/IDE devices, but the two ATA/IDE and two SATA combination is becoming common). External USB high-capacity drives are also available. If your computer is older and has USB1, purchase an inexpensive USB2 PCI expansion card, which is ten times faster.
SCSI has fewer limitations, but it is expensive and has tended to lock purchasers in to “flavor-of-the-month” SCSI technologies. One option for disk expansion and upgrade is the Host Bus Adaptor (HBA), such as those made by Promise Technology. An HBA is a disk controller on a PCI expansion card. HBAs typically require no additional software, have their own BIOS and are not constrained by PC BIOS limits on disk size. HBAs let you put large disks (more than 120GB) into systems with legacy BIOSes, upgrade from ATA-33 to ATA-150 or mix ATA and SATA disks.
You may want to consider purchasing a dedicated fileserver. A bare-bones server capable of holding six disks (fully preassembled, no disks or OS) can cost less than $1,500 US. With this initial investment, you can expand disk space as needed for less than $0.80 per GB or grow by plugging in USB disks. Once you have decided how many disks you need, consider their space, cooling and noise requirements. Figure 1 shows an example of a backup system build from an old server. The system has well over a terabyte of storage capacity.
Even if you choose to build a server from scratch and populate it with high-capacity disks, you can expect costs for your terabyte-plus backup server still to be minimal in terms of its per-gigabyte price. This is because storage costs have decreased so dramatically. Table 1 provides a variety of different configurations for a backup server, along with estimated prices per gigabyte for each (note: prices are estimates and do not include taxes or shipping costs). As you can see from the table, costs for a new server equipped with more than two terabytes of storage can be built for a cost of less than $1.50 per gigabyte. That will back up a lot of home movies, digital pictures and music files!
Table 1. Some Backup Options, with Estimated per-GB Costs
|Type||Configuration||Capacity (TB)||Cost per GB ($)|
|ATA/SATA Disk||Internal disk||0.4||0.56|
|Linux Desktop*||Three internal disks||1.2||0.84|
|Linux Desktop*||Three internal disks plus two USB external||2.0||0.73|
|LaCie 2TB Storage||Network server appliance||2||1.15|
|Linux Server**||Six internal disks||2.4||1.21|
|Linux Server**||Six internal plus two USB external||3.2||1.08|
*Intel Celeron D 478 325 2.53GHz, 256MB of RAM. **Intel SC5275 chassis, Intel ATX Motherboard, dual-3GHz Xeon CPUs, 2GB of RAM.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide