Reducing OS Boot Times for In-Car Computer Applications, Part III
The Epia patches include one called epia-fbdev, which leads to this encouragement from the LinuxBIOS mailing list:
El Jueves, 13 de Mayo de 2004 18:46, John Laur escribi?: > If you have VGA correctly working with LinuxBIOS (Ie you see the > linuxbios logo on startup), then you have VGA working as best it does > with LinuxBIOS. > > Then you can worry about the kernel. VESA Framebuffer does not work with > EPIA-M as the VGA bios doesn't initialize the video card up to where > vesafb can take over. You have to use viafb (part of the -epia patchset) > to get video on the console. Make sure you have it compiled into the > kernel and not as a module. Make sure vesafb is NOT compiled in either, > otherwise you'll need some commandline trickery to make it work. Also, > viafb doesn't work with bootsplash in silent mode on kernel 2.4 if you > are using that. I have not tested with kernel 2.6. > > John
However, all the flavors of epia-fbdev I tried hung the machine or produced scrambled text.
Anyway, one should build a kernel in the normal way. I unpacked the kernel, configured it and issue
make dep && make bzImage && make modules
Then, to install the modules somewhere so I could copy them to the Flash, I entered:
INSTALL_MOD_PATH=/home2/jamesh/linux-fast/ make modules_install
That command created /home2/jamesh/linux-fast/lib/modules/2.4.26-fast/. Next, make an elf image out of the kernel. This lets you put the command-line arguments in the kernel file itself and allows the bootloader to determine how big the kernel is:
/usr/local/sbin/mkelfImage --kernel=linux-2.4.26-fast/arch/i386/boot/bzImage --output=bzImage-2.4.26-fast.elf --command-line="root=/dev/hda4 console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8 rw"
Note that I set root=/dev/hda4. I also set the FILO like so:
AUTOBOOT_FILE = "hda4:/bzImage"
Now, I only needed to put the kernel in /dev/hda4 in the root directory--easy. Next, copy the romimage and flash_and_burn files to your Epia box and run flash_and_burn by itself to see if it recognizes your Flash chip. Typing flash_and_burn romimage burns it.
Now, hook a terminal up to the serial port, set to 115200-n-8-1, and boot. In 20 seconds you should hear Dexter, assuming you are using my ZipSlack image. As you can see, X works but the mouse does not--I don't know why. Type startx to start X.
I've created two disk images. One is UMSDOS, which I unzip into a MS-DOS filesystem on partition 4 of a disk. The other is a tar file that should work on an ext2 or ext3 filesystem.
The full log of our successful boot with fine-grained timings is here, and the following guided tour takes you through the highlights.
I wrote a program to dump the console out from the serial port with a timestamp. Here are some interesting things to note:
It takes .334 seconds to get from power-on to the BIOS.
> 3.492 Copying LinuxBIOS to ram.
Three and a half seconds, and now it's copying the BIOS to shadow. I assume that time was spent finding shadow itself.
> 6.292 Jumping to LinuxBIOS.
Here's a major timewaster: reading from the Flash BIOS chip is slow.
> 6.616 POST: 0x75 > ... > 7.076 POST: 0x95
I have no idea what this really means.
> 7.153 found VGA: vid=1106, did=3122 > ... > 9.533 biosint: Unsupport int #0xcd
This attempts to run the video BIOS I installed. 2.38 seconds can be saved by removing the dir src/bioscall line in epia-config in the FreeBIOS build directory. The only build I have at the moment that skips this step also doesn't send anything to the serial port, so I don't have a log of it.
> 9.574 Welcome to elfboot, the open sourced starter.
We're not out of LinuxBIOS yet.
> 9.722 FILO version 0.4.2
We've finally moved out of LinuxBIOS and into the FILO bootloader.
> 9.792 No sound device found
Yes, that message is in FILO. If you have a sound device that FILO recognizes, it would play a sound at this point. However, I couldn't get it to find the the VIA sound device, not that I tried very hard. But if you were using a mobo with a standalone video card and SB-compatible sound, we would have picture and sound at just under ten seconds.
> 10.013 Loading Linux version ... > 12.242 Jumping to entry point...
Hmm, over two seconds to get the kernel off the Flash and into RAM.
> 13.252 Linux version 2.4.26-fast
This is the actual start of the Linux boot.
> 19.811 Playing Sound
At this point sound is playing out the soundcard--19.811 seconds, or 17.431 if you skip the video BIOS call. Of this, only 6.559 seconds actually is booting Linux.
Fast/Flexible Linux OS Recovery
On Demand Now
In this live one-hour webinar, learn how to enhance your existing backup strategies for complete disaster recovery preparedness using Storix System Backup Administrator (SBAdmin), a highly flexible full-system recovery solution for UNIX and Linux systems.
Join Linux Journal's Shawn Powers and David Huffman, President/CEO, Storix, Inc.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Server Hardening
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- The Humble Hacker?
- New Container Image Standard Promises More Portable Apps
- The Death of RoboVM
- The US Government and Open-Source Software
- EnterpriseDB's EDB Postgres Advanced Server and EDB Postgres Enterprise Manager
- Why Python?
- Open-Source Project Secretly Funded by CIA
- Varnish Software's Hitch
In modern computer systems, privacy and security are mandatory. However, connections from the outside over public networks automatically imply risks. One easily available solution to avoid eavesdroppers’ attempts is SSH. But, its wide adoption during the past 21 years has made it a target for attackers, so hardening your system properly is a must.
Additionally, in highly regulated markets, you must comply with specific operational requirements, proving that you conform to standards and even that you have included new mandatory authentication methods, such as two-factor authentication. In this ebook, I discuss SSH and how to configure and manage it to guarantee that your network is safe, your data is secure and that you comply with relevant regulations.Get the Guide