Paranoid Penguin: Taking a Risk-Based Approach to Linux Security

Risk is inevitable. Be pessimistic about individual programs failing, make plans for handling and containing problems, and you'll keep your system as a whole secure.

Since I started writing this column four years ago, the nature of Linux software vulnerabilities and threats hasn't changed that much. Buffer overflows, bad configurations (including file permissions) and inadequate input validation still form the lion's share of Linux vulnerabilities. If the same kinds of vulnerabilities keep cropping up, is the whole patch rat race futile? Or, is there a broader approach to Linux security that we can adopt?

This month, I discuss Linux security from a risk-based perspective and illustrate how by using the risk-based approach we can mitigate not only the Linux vulnerabilities we know about, but the ones nobody's discovered or publicized yet.

The Risk-Based Approach to Security

You may be wondering, what do I mean by a risk-based approach? Isn't all information security about risks? Indeed it is, but this term is actually short for risk management-based approach.

There are only a few ways to handle a given information security risk. We can avoid it by not doing anything that exposes us to that risk. We can eliminate it by addressing its root cause (which is, in practice, seldom within our control). We can mitigate it—that is, do something that lessens the impact of the risk in some way. Or, we can accept it.

One school of thought, now thankfully obsolete, holds that security is a binary equation: things either are secure or stupid, and if one judges a given activity or tool as not being secure, one simply should not do that thing or use that tool. In other words, in this school of thought, risk avoidance is the preferred approach to security.

As most of us acknowledge nowadays, however, absolute security does not exist. No magic combination of software choices, software/system configuration or network topology can make us invulnerable to security breaches. No combination, that is, that you actually can do any work with. Risk in some quantity or another is inevitable in networked computing.

The risk management-based approach to security acknowledges the need to seek balance between risk avoidance, risk mitigation and risk acceptance, by prioritizing risks based on their likelihood and potential impact. Risks that are both likely to occur and expensive to recover from are tagged as being the most important risks either to mitigate or avoid. Risks that either are highly unlikely or extremely cheap to recover from become reasonable candidates for risk acceptance. By the way, when I talk of the cost or impact of a risk occurring, I mean not only monetary cost but also lost time, reputation and productivity.

Figure 1 shows the general relationship between a risk's likelihood, its cost and its acceptability. The precise shape of the curve that defines the acceptable risk and unacceptable risk zones will vary from organization to organization. A financial institution, for example, will tend to have a much bigger red zone than a university network.

Figure 1. Risk Thresholds

Thus, to take a risk-based approach to security is to acknowledge that not all risks are created equal, and therefore, you must choose your fights. To do so effectively, however, requires you to be creative and honest in identifying and assessing the risks in a given undertaking. Denying a risk exists is far more dangerous than acknowledging and accepting that risk and making recovery plans should the worst occur.

This brings up another important aspect of the risk-based approach: risk acceptance should not mean complacency. Any risk that can't be avoided or mitigated must at least be taken into consideration in business continuation and recovery plans. Furthermore, very few information security risks can't be mitigated in some way or another; many types of risks can't be eliminated but can nonetheless be contained or attenuated.

Vulnerabilities and Threats

Okay, so Linux security is best handled with a risk-based outlook. What does that look like? Step one is to think about known and potential vulnerabilities in your Linux system. Most of Linux's application and system vulnerabilities fall into one of these categories:

  • Buffer-overflow vulnerabilities (inadequate bounds checking).

  • Poor input validation.

  • Inappropriate file permissions.

  • Inappropriate system privileges (avoidable use of root).

  • Sloppy configuration.

  • Insecure use of temporary files.

  • Predictable or known default passwords.

  • Administrative back doors (test or debug accounts).

The first vulnerability in this list, buffer overflows, is arguably the scariest. Buffer overflows frequently lead directly to remote root compromises. Like buffer-overflow conditions, many of these vulnerabilities are the direct result of programming errors such as insecure use of temporary files and administrative back doors. Others are more typically user-inflicted by predictable passwords or sloppy configuration.

No vulnerability, however, actually constitutes a threat unless someone attempts to exploit it. In other words, a threat equals a vulnerability plus an attacker.

Step two is to think about ways that these vulnerabilities might be exploited. Although Linux vulnerabilities haven't changed much over the years, the actors who attempt to exploit them have. They've become both more effective and dumber. The scary truth is, easy availability of exploit code and scripts has made it increasingly easy for unskilled attackers to conduct increasingly sophisticated attacks.

For example, traditionally, conducting a buffer-overflow attack has required considerable programming skill—besides being able to determine where in memory the overflowed data will end up, the attacker must write or procure exploit code, or shellcode written in assembler code specific to the target system's architecture, such as i386 or SPARC. Shellcode is the code that gets overflowed and executed, resulting in a shell, ideally with root privileges, on the target system.

In olden times, the difficulty of identifying offsets and writing working shellcode narrowed the field of potential buffer-overflow attackers considerably. Nowadays, however, if you want to exploit a well-known buffer-overflow vulnerability, all you need to do is perform the right type of Google search to obtain exploit tools, each complete with shellcode for a variety of target systems.

People who write exploit scripts and publish them on the Internet are a big enough problem. But they're not the only actors in the threat equation; if you're the kind of person who enjoys arming script kiddies, it's only a little more work to automate the exploit completely and package it up into a worm or virus.

Viruses, of course, can't propagate themselves; they're always embedded within something else, for example, e-mail attachments or executable files. Worms, which propagate themselves, are much scarier—they're essentially viruses with wings. In fact, if you were to watch your log files during a worm attack, you'd have a hard time distinguishing it from an attack conducted by a human being. A worm is sort of an attack robot.

Thus, attackers either can be humans or pieces of software. The good news is, because they exploit exactly the same sorts of vulnerabilities, the defenses are the same for each. The bad news is, attack scripts, worms and viruses have shortened exponentially the amount of time you've got between the time a vulnerability is discovered and publicized and the time your system probably will be probed for that vulnerability by an attacker.

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