Driving the Mars Rovers
RoSE is a Java application running on the Sun Java Virtual Machine version 1.3.1; however, it's compiled not with Sun's compiler but with IBM's much faster Java compiler, Jikes. RoSE benefits from Java's well-known portability: we got the benefit of compiling and testing on a nice, fast Linux box and periodically installed and tested it on the SGI with little or no trouble. We even did an experimental port to Mac OS X, but abandoned it because we lacked time to support a third platform. There were no evident problems on Mac OS X, but if any had arisen, we wouldn't have had time to deal with them. We also had no requirement to support Mac OS X, so we dropped it altogether.
RoSE is aggressively data-driven, learning everything it knows about the rover from XML configuration files read at startup time. The IDE used for developing RoSE is good old tried-and-true GNU Emacs. Much of RoSE's GUI is built with hand-crafted Java code using Java's standard GUI toolkit, Swing. As nice as Swing is, hand-crafting GUI code sometimes is tedious; if a Java-supporting version of Glade had been available at the time, we likely would have used it. Still, important parts of the user interface are built dynamically. One of the XML configuration files RoSE reads at startup time is a description of the rover's command dictionary, sort of like an application programming interface (API) for the rover. RoSE uses this command dictionary to generate dialog boxes dynamically for editing each command, an approach that saved untold amounts of work as the command dictionary changed dramatically over its years of development.
The automation-friendly Linux environment contributed greatly to RoSE's reliability. Early on, we wrote extensive self-test code for RoSE and then set up a simple cron job to run the tests every night. If any self-tests failed, they were reported in an e-mail message to the developer the next morning. This helped us catch bugs early, while the changes that had caused them still were fresh in our minds. Our aggressive self-testing for RoSE was something of an experiment, and it is one that paid off handsomely.
As a side note, Java has a reputation for being slow, but we have to say that this reputation appears to be unfair. Although there are places where RoSE could be faster, this is true of any software. If we had more time (the constant refrain in software development), we could eliminate all of the bottlenecks. As it is, Java is fast enough for our purposes, and Linux's strong Java support has been a great benefit to us.
HyperDrive is the interactive visualization component of the RSVP suite; it's the part they'll show on CNN. HyperDrive's main purpose is to enable the safe and efficient planning of rover driving and arm motions by giving the operator a good understanding of the rover's state and its current environment. This is accomplished by fusing multiple data sources into a three-dimensional scene and then providing multiple ways of viewing this scene.
One of the main sources of data for HyperDrive is terrain models generated from stereo imagery. Most of the cameras on the two rovers are stereo cameras, which means that they can be used to see with depth perception, much like human eyes. By using a technique known as stereo correlation, we can go from the flat, two-dimensional world of a picture into the three-dimensional world of rendered computer graphics. By combining these terrain models with CAD data representing the rover, we have the nucleus of a system that is able to render views of the rover interactively driving over the terrain or placing its arm on the Martian surface (Figure 2).
We further may combine these renderings with the raw imagery from the rover cameras to provide an augmented reality view, where the scene as viewed from the rover is overlaid with synthetic imagery and possibly viewed three-dimensionally using LCD shutter glasses (Figure 3). We also can render simulated views from any of the rover's cameras to help in image targeting.
Into this virtual world we place icons and annotations, software-created objects that illustrate the command sequence and describe features of the world. The most important group of these objects is the sequence of icons that represents commands to be executed by the rover. While the text-oriented RoSE editor shows the entire command sequence for editing, HyperDrive shows only the subset of commands that have a sensible visual representation. In HyperDrive, mobility, robotic arm and imaging commands are shown as a string of icons placed across the terrain, each one located at the position where it will be executed. This allows us to program the rover's traverses across the terrain visually and to place its arm with a high degree of precision. Our first placement on the Martian surface was estimated to be within 5mm of its intended target. When we placed a second instrument on the same target, we did even better, placing it within 0.3mm of the first position. Not bad for a target a hundred million miles away.
Three-dimensional graphics programming under Linux started as quite a bleeding-edge adventure and matured into a capable platform with robust drivers and libraries. HyperDrive is based on the OpenGL Performer rendering API from Silicon Graphics. We use GTK+ and libglade for HyperDrive's user interface. The rapid prototyping enabled by Glade and libglade made GUI development painless and efficient, and we highly recommend this toolset to others in need of a robust interface toolkit. As our primary target evolved from IRIX to Linux, we were able to use more and more open-source tools and libraries and then find or build ports back to IRIX to maintain compatibility.
HyperDrive also is able to animate the rover's predicted actions, building an animation in real time and allowing the user to fly around and examine the rover's behavior from multiple perspectives. The same feature can be used to play back the rover's actual performance, based on the rover's daily report. And we were pleasantly surprised, to say the least, when these playback animations became a regular feature of JPL's daily press conferences.