GUI Scripting with Tcl/Tk
Most Linux distributions come with Tcl/Tk. However, I always install and use the latest version of ActiveTcl from ActiveState, Inc. Apart from being up to date and professionally presented, it provides a standard Tcl package with a lot of useful extensions. If you know your users are using ActiveTcl, you know exactly which extensions they have on their machine and therefore can guarantee your script can run. I encourage anyone who wants to run the project in this article to download and install ActiveTcl-220.127.116.11 or later, as that's what I used for development. ActiveTcl comes with its own installer, and if you install it in, for example, /opt/ActiveTcl-18.104.22.168, it doesn't interfere with any existing Tcl/Tk installation. If you already have a Tcl/Tk package in /usr/bin, ensure you set an early entry in your user account's PATH to point to the ActiveTcl bin directory.
Visual Tcl is available from SourceForge and also comes with its own installer. Many Linux distributions include it, but make sure you have the latest version.
A common approach to Tcl/Tk scripting is to start by designing the GUI. This process allows the developer to think through all the features the application requires, and it produces a solid framework on which those features can be built. When things start getting complicated, this approach breaks down and something more formal, like a Model, View, Controller pattern, is required. But for small applications, such as my Web page, or for rapid prototyping, getting a GUI together is a good starting point. So I'll start with Visual Tcl.
The days when developers would sit at a text editor manually arranging buttons, listboxes and other widgets by brain power alone are pretty much gone. This is the sort of job that should be done with a graphical tool. Dragging and dropping widgets makes development much quicker, especially for beginners.
Visual Tcl provides exactly these sorts of facilities and then some. In fact, it doesn't seem too sure whether to behave like a cut-down integrated development environment (IDE). It occasionally offers a text editing window where the user can write the Tcl code that forms the actual application, rather than limiting itself to dealing with the development of the GUI. On the other hand, it doesn't offer a debugger or other traditional IDE features, so it's difficult to justify calling it a real IDE. I dealt with this confusion of personality by going into the configuration dialog for the application and switching off many of the features that seem to get in my way (Figure 3).
Instead I chose to write the bulk of the application logic in my favoured environment (XEmacs) and simply used the output from Visual Tcl as a library that creates the GUI for my script. Credit goes to Visual Tcl for being flexible enough to be used in the way of my choosing. Listing 1 shows my wrapper script, which is the starting point for the application code itself.
Listing 1. A simple wrapper to keep the Visual Tcl code (in gui.tcl) separate from the main script. The #! line weirdness is a common way of starting a Tcl/Tk script.
#!/bin/sh # the next line restarts using wish \ exec wish "$0" "$@" # # My own procedures and "pre-gui" code will go here # # Load and run the GUI code created by Visual Tcl # source gui.tcl # # Any "post-gui" code I need can go here #
Once I understood the way I wanted to work with the tool, it didn't take too long to produce the output I wanted. Widgets are placed using a simple point-and-click interface, and a separate Attribute Editor window allows for the fine detail of widget behavior to be tweaked and fiddled with to the heart's content. Tk widget layout devices also are easy to control when you understand them. Figure 4 shows the Visual Tcl development environment.
Visual Tcl produces executable Tcl/Tk code, which is loaded and edited directly. The routines that load the Tcl/Tk code are surprisingly tolerant, which means the generated code can be edited and tuned independently by the developer before being returned to Visual Tcl for further work.
Visual Tcl's biggest problem is the dated nature of the toolkit behind it. Tcl/Tk offers only the basic building blocks of widgets. Things like comboboxes and notebooks aren't available in Tk. Fortunately, a number of extensions to Tcl/Tk provide these mega widgets, and Visual Tcl supports them all. The drawback is that for the final script to run correctly, the target machine needs the mega widget extensions installed. For this project I made use of the incr tcl widget set, and the Tcl/Tk installed as part of most Linux distributions may not contain this set. Hence my recommendation of the ActiveTcl Tcl/Tk distribution. In fact, my SuSE 8.1 system does include incr tcl but strangely doesn't include the extension required to load JPEG images—a rather glaring omission on the part of SuSE I'd have thought.
Anyone who has used a really slick GUI builder tool like the excellent Qt Designer can tell you that Visual Tcl needs more work. It's slow on my dual PIII-500 machine to the point of being irritating, and it has more than its share of usability issues and bugs, although these should be cleared up in the point-one release. The bottom line, though, is Visual Tcl did the job I required. The script it generates is readable enough to be fine-tuned by hand, and anything the code does can be overridden by more specific code in the main application. My GUI completed, I moved on to the application development side of the project.
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