uClinux for Linux Programmers
uClinux offers a choice of two kernel memory allocators. At first it may not seem obvious why an alternative kernel memory allocator is needed, but in small uClinux systems the difference is painfully apparent. The default kernel allocator under Linux uses a power-of-two allocation method. This helps it operate faster and quickly find memory areas of the correct size to satisfy allocation requests. Unfortunately, under uClinux, applications must be loaded into memory that is set aside by this allocator. To understand the ramifications of this, especially for large allocations, consider that an application requiring a 33KB allocation in order to be loaded actually allocates to the next power of two, which is 64KB. The 31KB of extra space allocated cannot be utilized effectively. This order of memory wastage is unacceptable on most uClinux systems. To combat this problem, an alternative memory allocator has been created for the uClinux kernels. It commonly is known as either page_alloc2 or kmalloc2, depending on the kernel version.
page_alloc2 addresses the power-of-two allocation wastage by using a power-of-two allocator for allocations up to one page in size (a page is 4,096 bytes, or 4KB). It then allocates memory rounded up to the nearest page. For the previous example, an application of 33KB actually has 36KB allocated to it; a savings of 28KB for a 33KB application is possible.
page_alloc2 also takes steps to avoid fragmenting memory. It allocates all amounts of two pages (8KB) or less from the start of memory up and all larger amounts from the end of free memory down. This stops transient allocations for network buffers and so on, fragmenting memory and preventing large applications from running. For a more detailed example of memory fragmentation, see the example in the Applications and Processes section below. page_alloc2 is not perfect, but it works well in practice, as the embedded environments that run uClinux tend to have a relatively static group of long-lived applications.
Once the developer gets past the kernel memory allocation differences, the real changes appear in the application space. This is where the full impact of uClinux's lack of VM is realized. The first major difference most likely to cause an application to fail under uClinux is the lack of a dynamic stack. On VM Linux, whenever an application tries to write off the top of the stack, an exception is flagged and some more memory is mapped in at the top of the stack to allow the stack to grow. Under uClinux, no such luxury is available as the stack must be allocated at compile time. This means that the developer, who previously was oblivious to stack usage within the application, must now be aware of the stack requirements. The first thing a developer should consider when faced with strange crashes or behavior of a newly ported application is the allocated stack size. By default, the uClinux toolchains allocate 4KB for the stack, which is close to nothing for modern applications. The developer should try increasing the stack size with one of the following methods:
Add FLTFLAGS = -s <stacksize> and export FLTFLAGS to the Makefile for the application before building.
Run flthdr -s <stacksize> executable after the application has been built.
The second major difference that strikes a uClinux developer is the lack of a dynamic heap, the area used to satisfy memory allocations with malloc and related functions in C. On Linux with VM, an application can increase its process size, allowing it to have a dynamic heap. This traditionally is implemented at the low level using the sbrk/brk system calls, which increase/change the size of a process' address space. The heap's management by library functions such as malloc then is performed on the extra memory obtained by calling sbrk() on behalf of the application. If an application needs more memory at any point, it can get more simply by calling sbrk() again; it also can decrease memory using brk(). sbrk() works by adding more memory to the end of a process (increasing its size). brk() arbitrarily can set the end of the process to be closer to the start of the process (reduce the process size) or further away (increase the process size).
Because uClinux cannot implement the functionality of brk and sbrk, it instead implements a global memory pool that basically is the kernel's free memory pool. There are pitfalls with this method. For example, a runaway process can use all of the system's available memory. Allocating from the system pool is not compatible with sbrk and brk, as they require memory to be added to the end of a process' address space. Thus, a normal malloc implementation is no good, and a new implementation is needed.
A global pool approach has some advantages. First, only the amount of memory actually required is used, unlike the pre-allocated heap system that some embedded systems use. This is extremely important on uClinux systems, which generally are running with little memory. Another advantage is that memory can be returned to the global pool as soon as it is finished being used, and the implementation can take advantage of the existing in-kernel allocator for managing this memory, reducing the size of application code.
One of the common problems new users encounter is the missing memory problem. The system is showing a large amount of free memory, but an application cannot allocate a buffer of size X. The problem here is memory fragmentation, and all of the uClinux solutions available at this time suffer from it. Because of the lack of VM in the uClinux environment, it is nearly impossible to utilize memory fully due to fragmentation. This is best explained by example. Suppose a system has 500KB of free memory and one wishes to allocate 100KB to load an application. It is easy to think that this would be possible. However, it is important to remember that one must have a contiguous 100KB block of memory in order to satisfy the allocation. Suppose the memory map looks like this. Each character represents approximately 20KB, and X marks areas allocated or in use by other programs or by the kernel:
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 -+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-- |XXXXX|XXXXX|---XX|--X--|-X---|XX---|-X---|-XX--|-X---|XXXXX|
In this case, 500KB are free, but the largest contiguous block is only 80KB. There are many ways to arrive at such a situation. A program that allocates some memory and then frees most of it, leaving a small allocation in the middle of a larger free block, often is the cause. Transient programs under uClinux also can affect where and how memory is allocated. The uClinux page_alloc2 kernel allocator has a configuration option that can help identify this problem. It enables a new /proc entry, /proc/mem_map, that shows pages and their allocation grouping. Documenting this is beyond the scope of this article, but more information can be found in the kernel source for page_alloc2.c.
The question is often asked, why can't this memory be defragmented so it is possible to load a 100KB application? The problem is that we don't have VM and we cannot move memory being used by programs. Programs usually have references to addresses within the allocated memory regions, and without VM to make the memory always appear to be at the correct address, the program will crash if we move its memory. There is no solution to this problem under uClinux. The developer needs to be aware of the problem and, where possible, try to utilize smaller allocation blocks.
- Handling the workloads of the Future
- Readers' Choice Awards 2014
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development
- How Can We Get Business to Care about Freedom, Openness and Interoperability?
- Synchronize Your Life with ownCloud
- December 2014 Issue of Linux Journal: Readers' Choice
- Non-Linux FOSS: Don't Type All Those Words!
- Days Between Dates?
- Computing without a Computer